Fruit-feeding butterfly communities are influenced by restoration age in tropical forests

  • Published source details Sant'Anna C.L.B., Ribeiro D.B., Garcia L.C. & Freitas A.V.L. (2014) Fruit-feeding butterfly communities are influenced by restoration age in tropical forests. Restoration Ecology, 22, 480-485.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Restore or create forest or woodland

Action Link
Butterfly and Moth Conservation
  1. Restore or create forest or woodland

    A site comparison study in 2009 in four forest fragments in São Paulo, Brazil (Sant’Anna et al. 2014) found that an old restored forest had fewer species and a lower diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies (Nymphalidae) than younger restored forests, but the proportion of forest species and overall species community at the older site was the most similar to a remnant forest. A 54-year-old restored forest had fewer species (25) and lower diversity of butterflies than 11–22-year-old restored forests (29–35 species) or remnant forest (28 species; diversity data presented as model results). However, the proportion of forest species in the 54-year-old forest (79% of individuals; 72% of species) was higher than in the younger forests (36–46% of individuals; 60–65% of species), and more similar to the remnant forest (92% of individuals; 89% of species). The species community in the old forest was most similar to the remnant forest (data presented as model results). In 1955, 1987 and 1998, three areas of forest (30–50 ha) were restored using seedlings of >70 native tree species and some non-native species. From January–April 2009, butterflies were surveyed in three plots (200 m apart) in each restored forest, and in a 245-ha remnant forest. At each plot, five baited Van Someren-Rydon traps were placed 30 m apart. Traps were left open for 8 days/month. Every 48 hours, butterflies were identified and released, and bait was replaced. Butterfly species were classified according to habitat preference as “forest”, “edge” or “grassland”.

    (Summarised by: Andrew Bladon)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust