Effects of vertebrate herbivores and shrub characteristics on arthropod assemblages in a northern Arizona forest ecosystem

  • Published source details Huffman D.W., Laughlin D.C., Pearson K.M. & Pandeya S. (2009) Effects of vertebrate herbivores and shrub characteristics on arthropod assemblages in a northern Arizona forest ecosystem. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 616-625.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Remove, control or exclude vertebrate herbivores

Action Link
Butterfly and Moth Conservation
  1. Remove, control or exclude vertebrate herbivores

    A replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in 1999–2004 in a pine forest in Arizona, USA (Huffman et al. 2009) reported that Fendler’s ceanothus Ceanothus fendleri shrubs protected from large herbivores with exclosures had a higher abundance of moths than unprotected shrubs. Results were not tested for statistical significance. On protected shrubs, 0.03–0.20 individual moths/plant, from three families, were recorded, compared to no moths on unprotected shrubs. In 1998–1999, trees <36 cm diameter were thinned in three experimental units (14–16 ha), and sixty Fendler’s ceanothus Ceanothus fendleri shrubs/unit (1–25 upright stems, covering <2 m2) were located. In 1999, thirty shrubs/unit were randomly selected, and had 4-m2, 1.4-m-high exclosures built around them. Exclosures had a large mesh (5 × 10 cm) on the sides, and open tops. In June 2002–2004, insects including moths were sampled by sweep netting (five sweeps/shrub, 20–50 cm above ground) through a subset of 30–52 shrubs/year (see paper for details), and identified to family level.

    (Summarised by: Andrew Bladon)

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