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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Survival and breeding productivity of translocated red kites Milvus milvus reintroduced into southern England

Published source details

Evans I.M., Summers R.W., O'Toole L., Orr-Ewing D.C., Evans R., Snell N. & Smith J. (1999) Evaluating the success of translocating red kites Milvus milvus to the UK. Bird Study, 46, 129-144


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Translocate raptors Bird Conservation

A study (Evans et al. 1999) reviewed the success, until 1995, of the same red kite Milvus milvus translocation programme as Evans et al. 1994 as well as translocations to northern Scotland and found that survival and reproductive productivity were higher in England than Scotland. Between 1989-94, 93 juvenile kites (48 males, 45 females) were released in southern England and had an average first-year survival rate of 76%, increasing to 91-2% in second and third years and 100% for fourth and five years after release. There was a slight difference between male and female survival, leading to a gradual change in the sex ratio. During 1989-93, 93 juvenile kites (all from Sweden) were released in northern Scotland and had an average first-year survival rate of 52%, increasing to 67-88% in second and third years and 75-91% for fourth and five years after release. Early breeding attempts in England are described in (3) and by 1995 there were 24 breeding pairs fledging at least 115 young during 1991-5. In Scotland, breeding was first attempted (successfully) in 1992, with 15 breeding pairs in 1995. During 1992-5, 29 clutches were laid, fledging 47 chicks. Survival rates of wild-raised birds in both regions did not differ significantly from released birds during 1992-4. Main causes of mortality were poisoning and collisions in Scotland, with poisoning also being important in England.