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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Effects of macrohabitat and microhabitat on nest box use and nesting success of American kestrels Falco sparverius in Berks and Lehigh Counties, Pennsylvania, USA

Published source details

Rohrbaugh R. & Yahner R. (1997) Effects of macrohabitat and microhabitat on nest-box use and nesting success of American kestrels. Wilson Bulletin, 109, 410-423


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide artificial nesting sites for falcons Bird Conservation

A replicated trial in 1987-91 in mixed agricultural habitats and woodland in Pennsylvania, USA (Rohrbaugh & Yahner 1997), found that American kestrels Falco sparverius used 76% of 130 nest boxes at least once over the five-year study period, with 49% of 259 nesting attempts raising at least one offspring. Kestrels most frequently used unconcealed nest boxes in open habitats away from forested areas, and with a lot of light entering. Nest boxes with southeast orientations were used most frequently. Nesting success was also higher in nest boxes with high light intensities. Nest boxes were 26 × 24 × 33 cm with a 7.6 cm diameter entrance hole and were attached 2.0-6.5 m above the ground.