Individual study: Influence of nest box placement and density on abundance and productivity of American kestrels Falco sparverius in Boone County, central Missouri, USA
Toland B. & Elder W. (1987) Influence of nest-box placement and density on abundance and productivity of American kestrels in central Missouri. Wilson Bulletin, 99, 712-717
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Provide artificial nesting sites for falcons
A controlled before-and-after study in Missouri, USA (Toland & Elder 1987), found a large increase in nesting and overwinter population densities of American kestrels Falco sparverius in a 78 km2 area, where 125 nest boxes were erected in 1982-3 (0.05 birds/km2 in 1977-81 vs. 0.32 birds/km2 in 1984). There was no increase in a 90 km2 control area, without nest boxes (0.02 birds/km2 in 1977-81 vs. 0.03 birds/km2 in 1984), but there was in an urban control area (0.13 birds/km2 in 1977-81 vs. 0.23 birds/km2 in 1984), possibly due to increased food availability. Overall, kestrels used 53% of the 125 nest boxes available. Nesting success was significantly higher in boxes mounted on man-made structures (64-78% on buildings and utility poles) than on trees (33%), but still lower than in natural sites (86–88%). However, they produced as many young through double broods and replacement clutches.