Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico

  • Published source details Borkhataria R.R., Collazo J.A. & Groom M.J. (2012) Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 151.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Diversify ground vegetation and canopy structure in the habitat around woody crops

Action Link
Reptile Conservation
  1. Diversify ground vegetation and canopy structure in the habitat around woody crops

    A replicated, site comparison study in 2000 in six coffee plantations in north-central Puerto Rico (Borkhataria et al. 2012) found that two of three lizard species were less abundant in shade-grown than sun-grown coffee plantations. Puerto Rican crested anole Anolis cristatellus and barred anole Anolis stratulus were less abundant in shade-grown (crested: 1,642 individuals/m2; barred: 294) than sun-grown coffee plantations (2,034; 631). Upland grass anoles Anolis krugi abundance was similar in shade-grown and sun-grown coffee plantations (shade: 411 individuals/m2; sun: 384). Four further species were observed, but in too low numbers to assess population differences between plantation types. Yellow-chinned anole Anolis. gundlachi and emerald anole Anolis evermanni were mostly observed in shade-grown (yellow: 525 individuals observed; emerald: 241) rather than sun-grown coffee plantations (2; 6), whereas common grass anole Anolis puchellus tended to be less frequently observed in shade-grown compared to sun-grown coffee plantations (shade: 2 individuals observed; sun: 28). Puerto Rican giant anole A. cuvieri observations were the same in shade-grown and sun-grown coffee plantations (5 individuals observed in both). Lizard abundance was estimated using mark-resightings in 4–6 circular 400m2 plots in three sun-grown (closely-spaced 2–3 m high sun tolerant coffee trees with dense foliage) and three shade-grown coffee plantations (irregularly-spaced 2–4 m high coffee (or banana or citrus) trees under a canopy of medium and tall shade trees) in March–May 2000. Each plot was sampled for four consecutive days in spring. Lizards were marked at a distance using tree-marking spray paint guns and latex house paint.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, Katie Sainsbury)

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