Raccoon Removal, Nesting Success, and Hatchling Emergence in Iowa Turtles with Special Reference to Kinosternon flavescens (Kinosternidae)

  • Published source details Christiansen J.L. & Gallaway B.J. (1984) Raccoon Removal, Nesting Success, and Hatchling Emergence in Iowa Turtles with Special Reference to Kinosternon flavescens (Kinosternidae). The Southwestern Naturalist, 29, 343-348.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Remove or control predators by relocating them

Action Link
Reptile Conservation
  1. Remove or control predators by relocating them

    A before-and-after study in 1978–1982 around ponds and sand dunes in Iowa, USA (Christiansen & Gallaway 1984) found that following removal of racoons Procyon lotor, the number of turtle hatchlings increased, and nest predation decreased for the first few years.  Results were not tested statistically. Nest predation decreased for two years following racoon removal (before removal: 18 nests destroyed; after removal: 5 and 4 nests destroyed), but increased again 3–4 years after removal (21 and 28 nests destroyed). Abundance of hatchlings increased for three years (before removal: 15 hatchlings; after removal: 75, 80 and 74 hatchlings), but then decreased four years after removal (30 hatchlings). The most abundant turtle species was the yellow mud turtle Kinosternon flavescens (167 hatchlings seen in total). Raccoons were live trapped during 1979 and relocated to a site 24 km from the study site. Surveys for hatchlings and destroyed nests were conducted in 1978–1982. Turtle nesting areas were monitored twice/week and hatchling turtles were sampled using drift fences placed between ponds and known nesting areas 3–30 m from water and pitfalls.

    (Summarised by: Maggie Watson, William Morgan)

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