Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Legally protect habitat Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of legally protecting habitat. Six studies were in the UK and one was in each of Australia, Singapore and Ireland and the USA. Three of the studies used data from the same national monitoring scheme across different years. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (3 studies): One replicated, site comparison study in Singapore found that protected primary or secondary forest reserves had a higher species richness of butterflies than unprotected forest fragments. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Ireland reported that raised bogs protected as Special Areas of Conservation (where restoration had sometimes taken place) had a similar species richness of moths to unprotected bogs. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that, in the first three years after protection as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), woodland, grassland and heathland sites lost a similar proportion of 29 threatened butterfly species to unprotected sites. POPULATION RESPONSE (8 STUDIES) Abundance (7 studies): Three of five site comparison studies (including four replicated studies and one before-and-after study) in the UK and Ireland found that sites protected as National Nature Reserves or Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) (in one case also managed by coppicing), or surrounded by SSSIs, had a higher abundance of heath fritillary, all butterflies and 30/57 species of butterfly than unprotected sites. However, one of these studies only found the result using one of two sets of sites. The other two studies found that grasslands protected as National Nature Reserves or SSSIs and raised bogs protected as Special Areas of Conservation had a similar total abundance of moths, and change in abundance of chalkhill blue butterflies, to unprotected sites. However, one of these studies found mixed results for individual moth species. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that, at sites with the highest levels of protection, abundances of Karner blue, frosted elfin and Persius duskywing did not change over time, whereas they decreased at sites with lower levels of protection. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that protected grasslands assessed as being in “Favourable” habitat condition had worse population trends for 4/8 butterfly species but better for 1/8 species than grasslands in “Unfavourable” condition. One study in Australia reported that after a grassland was designated as a local reserve, populations of golden sun-moth and pale sun-moth persisted for at least four years. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3831https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3831Mon, 04 Jul 2022 13:36:18 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use prescribed fire to maintain or restore disturbance in grasslands or other open habitats Thirteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of using prescribed fire to maintain or restore disturbance in grasslands or other open habitats. Eight studies were in the USA, three were in the UK, one was in South Africa and one was a review across Europe. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that pastures managed by patch-burning had a similar butterfly community to rotationally or continuously grazed pastures. Richness/diversity (3 studies): Two replicated, before-and-after studies (including one randomized, controlled study and one paired sites, site comparison study) in the USA found that shrubland plots and grass field margins managed by burning had a similar species richness of butterflies to those which were unburned. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA reported that pastures managed by patch-burning had a lower species richness of butterflies than rotationally grazed pastures, a similar richness to rotationally grazed and mown pastures, and a higher species richness than continuously grazed pastures. POPULATION RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Abundance (12 studies): Four of nine studies (including six replicated studies, two randomized studies, two paired sites studies, three controlled studies, two before-and-after studies, and five site comparison studies) in the UK, South Africa and the USA found that the abundance of heath fritillary adults, marsh fritillary caterpillar webs and Fender’s blue caterpillars and eggs was higher (sometimes after initial reductions in abundance) on heathland, fen meadows and prairies one or more years after management by burning than before burning, or compared to unburned or grazed land, although the total population of Fender’s blue declined in adjacent burned and unburned areas. Three studies found that the abundance of Brenton blue butterfly eggs and adults, rosy marsh moth caterpillars and regal fritillary adults was lower on a bog and prairies managed by burning than on unburned land, at least one and five years after burning. One study found that grass field margins managed by burning had a similar abundance of butterflies to unburned field margins. The seventh study found that abundance of Powershiek skipperling to burning, along with haying and idling, depended on the site’s vegetation characteristics. Two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA found that two prairie specialists (regal fritillary and arogos skipper) and three out of nine butterfly species were less abundant in prairies or pastures managed by burning than in prairies managed by haying or grazed pastures. These studies also found that the abundance of generalist and migrant species, and of purplish copper, was higher in burned prairies or pastures than hayed prairies or grazed pastures. One review across Europe reported that occasional burning on grassland benefitted 10 out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern. Survival (1 study): One replicated, paired sites, controlled study in the USA found that in prairie plots burned one year before, Fender’s blue butterfly caterpillars had lower survival than in unburned plots. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that a similar proportion of fen meadows were occupied by marsh fritillary caterpillars whether they were managed by burning, grazing or were unmanaged. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3882https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3882Mon, 25 Jul 2022 12:37:11 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use rotational burning Seventeen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of using rotational burning. Twelve studies were in the USA, one was in South Africa and one was in Japan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that prairies managed by rotational burning (every 1–6 years) and grazing had a different community composition of butterflies to prairies managed by rotational burning or grazing alone. Richness/diversity (5 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA and Japan found that pine-oak barrens and semi-natural grasslands managed by rotational burning every 2 years or 2–5 years (sometimes combined with rotational mowing) had a higher species richness of butterflies than unmanaged sites or sites managed by annual burning or mowing. However, one of these studies also found that the species richness of grassland butterflies was lower in prairies managed by rotational burning than in unmanaged prairies in one of two regions. Two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA found that the species richness of butterflies was higher on prairies burned more than one or four years ago than on prairies burned in the last one or two years under rotational burning management. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that prairies managed by rotational burning (every 1–6 years) and grazing had a similar species richness of butterflies to prairies managed by rotational burning or grazing alone, but a lower diversity of butterflies than sites managed by rotational burning only. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the USA found that species richness of butterflies did not differ between prairies managed with annual rotational burning or complete burning. POPULATION RESPONSE (15 STUDIES) Abundance (15 studies): Four replicated studies (including one paired, controlled study and three site comparison studies) in the USA found that under rotational burning management the total abundance of prairie specialist, grassland and all butterflies, and of most insects including butterflies and moths, was higher on prairies burned more than one, two or four years ago, or longer ago, than on prairies burned in the last one or two years, or recently. One of these studies also found that the abundance of grassland and generalist butterflies was highest in the third year after burning, and migrant butterflies in the first year after burning. Two of these studies6,8, and an additional replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that the total abundance of butterflies, and of most insects including butterflies and moths, was higher in pine-oak barrens and prairies managed by rotational burning every 2–5 years, 2–3 years or 1–6 years than at unmanaged sites or sites managed by rotational burning or grazing alone. One of these studies also found that the abundance of butterflies was lower in prairies managed by rotational burning than in unmanaged prairies in one of two regions. Four of six replicated studies in the USA (including five site comparison studies and one randomized, controlled study) found that rotational burning in prairies, pine barrens and grasslands had mixed effects on butterflies, compared to unmanaged, hayed, grazed, mowed or completely burned sites. The fifth study found that prairies managed by rotational burning had more strongly declining populations of grass-skipper butterflies than unmanaged pine barrens or lightly managed fields. The sixth study found that for three fritillary species rotational burning in prairies did not affect abundance, but for three others, in at least one region surveyed, abundance was lower in prairies managed by rotational burning, sometimes in combination with haying, grazing and/or mowing, than in prairies managed with only haying or grazing, or in unmanaged prairies. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA reported that Karner blue butterfly abundance was similar in rotationally burned and unmanaged oak savannas and prairies. One site comparison study in the USA reported that regal fritillary abundance was higher in grasslands and oak barrens managed by rotational burning every three years (following restoration by seeding) than on unmanaged sites or remnant prairies. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that the abundance of regal fritillary was higher in rotationally burned prairies four years after the last burn than one or eight years after the last burn. One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in the USA found that, in June, the abundance of regal fritillaries in prairies burned on rotation that spring was lower than in prairies burned 1–2 years ago, but in July the abundance was higher in recently burned prairies. Survival (1 study): One replicated study in South Africa found that populations of Karkloof blue persisted for at least a year following rotational burning. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3883https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3883Mon, 25 Jul 2022 15:05:14 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove, control or exclude vertebrate herbivores Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of removing, controlling or excluding vertebrate herbivores. Three studies were in the USA, two were in the UK, one was in each of Mauritius, the Netherlands, Canada and Japan, and one was a global systematic review. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (6 studies): Two of four replicated studies (including three controlled studies and one site comparison study) in the USA, Mauritius and Canada found that forest plots fenced to exclude, or reduce the density of, non-native pigs and deer (in one case along with weeding of invasive plants) had a greater species richness of butterflies and macro-moths than unfenced plots. The other two studies found that forest plots fenced to exclude elk had mixed effects on the species richness of butterflies and arthropods including moths depending on fire intensity and year. One of these studies also found that grassland plots fenced to exclude elk had a similar species richness of butterflies to unfenced plots in all years. One global systematic review found that reducing or removing grazing or browsing by wild or domestic herbivores in temperate and boreal forests did not affect the species richness of butterflies and moths. POPULATION RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Abundance (9 studies): Five of eight studies (including five controlled studies, one before-and-after study, and two site comparison studies) in the UK, the USA, Mauritius, Canada and Japan found that forest and grassland plots fenced to exclude, or reduce the density of, deer, sheep, pigs and large herbivores (in one case along with weeding of invasive plants) had a higher abundance of butterflies, moths, caterpillars, rare macro-moths and New Forest burnet moths than unfenced plots. One of these studies also found that the total abundance of macro-moths was similar in fenced and unfenced plots. Two studies found that forest plots fenced to exclude elk had mixed effects on the abundance of butterflies and arthropods including moths depending on fire intensity and year. One of these studies also found that grassland plots fenced to exclude elk had a similar abundance of butterflies to unfenced plots in all years. The eighth study found that a forest fenced to exclude sika deer had a similar abundance of all moths, but a lower abundance of tree-feeding moths, than unfenced forest. One global systematic review found that reducing or removing grazing or browsing by wild or domestic herbivores in temperate and boreal forests increased the abundance of butterflies and moths. Survival (1 study): One paired, controlled study in the Netherlands reported that all Glanville fritillary caterpillar nests survived in grassland fenced to exclude sheep, compared to 88% in a grazed area. Condition (1 study): One paired, controlled study in the Netherlands found that fewer Glanville fritillary caterpillar nests were damaged in grassland fenced to exclude sheep than in a grazed area. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3891https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3891Tue, 09 Aug 2022 11:49:20 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Reduce fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally Eleven studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of reducing fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally. Three studies were in the UK, two were in each of the USA and Germany, one was in each of Spain, Mexico and Switzerland, and one was a systematic review across Europe. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (10 studies): Eight studies (including one replicated study, two controlled studies, one randomized study, five site comparison studies, and one systematic review) in the USA, Europe, the UK, Spain, Mexico and Switzerland found that orchards, crop edges, farms, vineyards, replanted Douglas fir stands, coffee plantations and agricultural landscapes managed with less frequent, reduced or no pesticide, herbicide, fertilizer or unspecified chemical input (sometimes along with other agri-environment scheme options or less intensive management) had a greater species richness of adult butterflies and moths, or caterpillars (in one case along with other leaf-eating arthropods), than areas with more frequent or conventional chemical applications. However, one of these studies found that species richness was not affected by the number of pesticide applications in the year of study, only in the previous three years, and another of the studies also found that vineyards managed with reduced insecticide and herbicide application had a similar species richness of moths to conventionally managed vineyards. Two replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and one site comparison study) in the UK and Germany found that unfertilized grassland had a similar species richness of butterflies and moths, but greater species richness of specialist moths, to fertilized grassland. POPULATION RESPONSE (9 STUDIES) Abundance (9 studies): Six studies (including one replicated study, one controlled study, one randomized study, four site comparison studies, and one systematic review) in Europe, the UK, Germany, Mexico and Switzerland found that crop edges, farms, a hay meadow, coffee plantations and agricultural landscapes managed with less frequent, reduced or no pesticide, insecticide, fungicide, herbicide, fertilizer or unspecified chemical input (sometimes along with other agri-environment scheme options or less intensive management) had a higher abundance of adult butterflies and moths, or caterpillars, than areas with more frequent or conventional chemical applications. However, one of these studies found that abundance was not affected by the number of pesticide applications in the year of study, only in the previous three years, and another of these studies also found that a hay meadow with no herbicide applications had a similar abundance of caterpillars to a meadow where herbicide was used, and a meadow with no fertilizer applications had a lower abundance of caterpillars than a meadow where fertilizer was applied in one of two sampling sessions. Three replicated studies (including two randomized, controlled studies and one site comparison study) in the UK, Germany and the USA found that unfertilized grassland and replanted Douglas fir stands with limited or no herbicide applications had a similar abundance of adult butterflies and caterpillars, and adult moths, to fertilized grassland and stands with more herbicide applications. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Germany found that unfertilized or lightly fertilized grasslands were preferred to heavily fertilized grasslands by 7 out of 58 species of moth, but 12 of 58 species preferred more heavily fertilized grasslands. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3897https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3897Tue, 09 Aug 2022 13:43:37 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Convert to organic farming Thirteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of converting to organic farming. Six studies were in Sweden, three were in the UK and one was in each of Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Taiwan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (13 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (13 studies): Seven of 11 replicated, site comparison studies (including five paired studies) in Sweden, the UK, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Taiwan found that organic arable farms had a greater species richness of butterflies, burnet moths and all moths than conventionally managed farms. However, three of these studies only found this in intensively managed not in more diverse landscapes,only in the first of three study years, and in farms managed organically for <6 years but not 15–23 years. Four of the studies found that organic arable and mixed farms had a similar species richness of macro-moths and butterflies to conventionally managed farms. Two of these studies also found that on organic and conventionally managed farms within a landscape with a high proportion of organic farms there was higher species richness of butterflies and burnet moths than either type of farm in a landscape with a high proportion of conventional farms. One before-and-after study in the UK found that within 4 years after a mixed farm converted to organic management (along with increasing the proportion of grassland and reducing grazing intensity) the species richness of large moths increased. One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden found that organic mixed farms had a more consistent species richness of butterflies across the farm, but a similar consistency through the summer and between years, compared to conventional farms. POPULATION RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Abundance (12 studies): Seven of 11 replicated, site comparison studies (including five paired studies) in Sweden, the UK, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Taiwan found that organic arable farms had a greater abundance of butterflies, burnet moths, and all moths, than conventionally managed farms, and that butterfly abundance increased with time since farms had been converted to organic management. However, three of these studies only found this in intensively managed not in more diverse landscapes, and in farms managed organically for <6 years but not 15–23 years. One of these studies also found that on organic and conventionally managed farms within a landscape with a high proportion of organic farms there was higher abundance of butterflies than either type of farm in a landscape with a high proportion of conventional farms. The other four found that organic arable and mixed farms had a similar abundance of macro-moths and butterflies to conventionally managed farms. One before-and-after study in the UK found that within 4 years after a mixed farm converted to organic management (along with increasing the proportion of grassland and reducing grazing intensity) the total abundance of large moths, and the abundance of lunar underwing moths and 5 out of 23 butterfly species, increased, but the abundance of two butterfly species decreased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3907https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3907Tue, 09 Aug 2022 18:07:43 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Maintain species-rich, semi-natural grassland Nineteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of maintaining species-rich, semi-natural grassland. Five studies were in Germany, four were in the USA, two were in each of Switzerland and the Czech Republic, and one was in each of Finland and Russia, China, Italy, Spain, Hungary and Austria. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Community composition (6 studies): Four replicated, site comparison studies in the USA, the Czech Republic, Austria and Germany found that the community composition of butterflies, day-flying moths and nocturnal moths was different between summer cattle-grazed, early-mown and late-mown grassland, between mown and grazed grassland, and between prairies managed by cattle grazing and/or rotational burning. However, one of these studies found that the community composition of butterflies was similar in mown and grazed grassland. Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Czech Republic and Germany found that species-rich grassland managed by grazing or mowing had a similar community composition of butterflies and burnet moths to abandoned grassland. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that meadows managed by mowing at least twice/year after mid-June had a different community composition of butterflies to sown wildflower strips. Richness/diversity (11 studies): Three of six site comparison studies (including five replicated studies) in Germany, the USA, Russia and Finland, Italy and the Czech Republic found that the species richness of butterflies was similar on semi-natural grassland managed by light grazing or by annual mowing in July or August, and on prairies managed by cattle grazing and/or rotational burning. One study found that the species richness of butterflies was higher in grassland managed by sheep and cattle grazing than in grassland mown annually for hay in June. One study found that the species richness of moths was higher in grassland managed by annual mowing than grassland managed by grazing, and the species richness of butterflies was highest in grasslands where mowing was staggered throughout the year, with some areas left uncut. The sixth study found that in some areas, the species richness of specialist and grassland butterflies was higher in prairies managed by two-year rotational haying, and in other areas it was higher in prairies managed by grazing, but in all cases richness was higher at sites longer after they were last managed. Two replicated, site comparison studies in Germany found that species-rich grasslands managed by summer-grazing, grazing or mowing had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths and nocturnal moths to unmanaged grassland. However, one of these studies also found that grasslands managed by mowing had a lower species richness of nocturnal moths than unmown grassland. Two replicated, site comparison studies in Germany and Hungary found that old meadows mown in July and lightly grazed or annually mown meadows had a higher species richness of adult butterflies and caterpillars than recently established set-aside or cereal crops. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that meadows mown at least twice/year after mid-June had a similar species richness of butterflies to sown wildflower strips. POPULATION RESPONSE (16 STUDIES) Abundance (16 studies): Five of ten site comparison studies (including nine replicated studies) in Germany, the USA, Russia and Finland, Italy, Spain and the Czech Republic found that semi-natural grasslands had a similar abundance of butterflies generally, and individual species of butterflies and moth caterpillars, when managed by extensive sheep, sheep and goat, cattle or livestock grazing compared to annual or occasional mowing, or rotational mowing or burning. Four of these studies found that grasslands managed by cattle, sheep or livestock grazing had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and individual species of butterflies and moth caterpillars, than grasslands managed by annual mowing, rotational burning or unmanaged grasslands. Three of these studies found that grasslands managed by haying had a higher abundance of individual butterfly species than grasslands managed by grazing or burning or unmanaged grasslands. Four of these studies found that specific butterfly species and all butterflies were less abundant in mown, grazed or rotationally burned grassland than in unmanaged, rotationally burned or grazed and burned grassland. The ninth study found that in some areas, the abundance of specialist and grassland butterflies was higher in prairies managed by two-year rotational haying or by grazing, but in all cases abundance was higher at sites longer after they were last managed. One of three replicated, site comparison studies in Germany and Switzerland found that traditional hay meadows mown once/year in June or July had a higher abundance of heath fritillary adults and caterpillars than old, abandoned meadows. One study found that summer-grazed or mown grasslands had a higher abundance of farmland butterflies and burnet moths, but a lower abundance of woodland butterflies and burnet moths, than abandoned grasslands. The third study found that mown grasslands had a lower abundance of moths than unmown grasslands, but grazed grasslands had a similar abundance of moths to ungrazed grasslands. Two replicated, site comparison studies in China and Switzerland found that semi-natural grasslands managed by grazing or cutting twice/year after mid-June had a lower abundance of marsh fritillary eggs and caterpillars and adult butterflies than ungrazed margins and intercrops or sown wildflower strips. One replicated, site comparison study in Hungary found that semi-natural grasslands managed by either light grazing or mowing once/year in May or June had a higher abundance of butterflies than conventional wheat fields. Survival (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in China found that marsh fritillary eggs had a similar survival rate in uncultivated, grazed meadows and cultivated, ungrazed field margins and intercrops, but the survival of caterpillars was higher in the grazed meadows. BEHAVIOUR (5 STUDIES) Use (5 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in Austria and Germany found that 14 species of moth preferred grazed pastures while 24 others avoided them, and three species of butterfly and ten nocturnal moths preferred mown meadows, while 19 nocturnal moth species avoided them. One replicated, site comparison study in Spain found that meadows managed by summer-grazing or hay-mowing were more likely to be occupied by grizzled skipper and painted lady than unmanaged meadows, but small pearl-bordered fritillary occurred less frequently in grazed meadows than in hay meadows or abandoned meadows. One replicated, site comparison study in Finland and Russia found that three of 37 butterfly species preferred meadows which were mown annually in July or August to cattle-grazed pasture, but the other 34 species showed no preference. One replicated, site comparison study in China found that uncultivated, grazed meadows were less likely to be occupied by marsh fritillary eggs and caterpillars than cultivated field margins and intercrops.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3908https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3908Wed, 10 Aug 2022 11:31:24 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Translocate to re-establish populations in known or believed former range Sixteen studies evaluated the effects of translocating butterflies and moths to re-establish populations within their former range. Seven studies were in the UK, two were reviews across the UK and Ireland, two studies were in Finland and one study was in each of the USA, Australia, the Netherlands, Belgium and the Netherlands and the UK and Sweden. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (16 STUDIES) Abundance (13 studies): Eight studies in the UK, Finland, the USA, Australia, the Netherlands and Belgium and the Netherlands reported that translocated populations of adult butterflies and Fisher’s estuarine moth eggs persisted for 2–12 years and increased in abundance (sometimes in areas where coppicing, selective felling, planting, fencing, host plant translocation, invasive plant removal, sheep grazing, scrub clearance or unspecified habitat restoration were conducted before or after release). Three studies (including two replicated studies) in the UK and Finland reported that some translocated populations of silver-studded blue and clouded Apollo adults, and belted beauty moth eggs and caterpillars, persisted for 1–49 years (in one case where vegetation had been removed before release), increased in abundance and colonized new sites, but other populations died out within 0–7 years. One of two reviews across the UK and Ireland found that 25% of translocated and released captive-bred butterfly populations survived for at least three years, but 38% died out in that time, and only 8% were known to have survived for more than 10 years. The other review reported that translocated populations of large copper adults and/or caterpillars (sometimes to areas planted with great water dock or where bushes had been cleared, or alongside the release of captive-bred individuals) survived for up to 38 years, but ultimately died out or had to be supplemented by further releases. Survival (2 studies): Two site comparison studies (including one replicated, paired study) in the UK found that the survival of large blue caterpillars was higher when translocated into Myrmica sabuleti nests without queen ants present than with queens present, and the survival of translocated large copper caterpillars was higher than the survival of released, captive-bred caterpillars. Condition (1 study): One site comparison in the UK and Sweden found that 19 years after translocation, large blue butterflies in the UK had similar genetic diversity to their Swedish source population. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3909https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3909Wed, 10 Aug 2022 12:30:26 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Increase or maintain the proportion of natural or semi‐natural habitat in the farmed landscape Twelve studies evaluated the effects of increasing or maintaining the proportion of natural or semi-natural habitat in the farmed landscape on butterflies and moths. Three studies were in Switzerland, two were in each of Germany, Sweden and the UK, and one was in each of the USA, Malaysia, and New Zealand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (11 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (11 studies): Nine of eleven studies (including one replicated, randomized, controlled study, one before-and-after study and eight replicated, site comparison studies) in Germany, Sweden, Malaysia, Switzerland, the UK, and New Zealand found that the species richness of butterflies, burnet moths and all moths was higher on farms with a greater proportion of semi-natural habitat or with a greater proportion of woodland in the surrounding landscape, or after semi-natural habitat had been created, compared to conventional farmland or farmland with a greater proportion of arable land in the surrounding landscape. One study found that species richness of butterflies in oil palm plantations was higher where ground coverage of weeds had been maintained but similar whether or not epiphyte or fern coverage was maintained. The eleventh study found that the species richness of butterflies was similar on farms with different proportions of semi-natural habitat. POPULATION RESPONSE (8 STUDIES) Abundance (8 studies): Six replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and five site comparison studies) in Sweden, the UK, New Zealand, and Switzerland found that the abundance of butterflies and moths was higher on farms with a greater proportion of semi-natural habitat, or in semi-natural habitat compared to conventional farmland. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA and Sweden found that the abundance of four out of eight species of butterflies was higher on farms surrounded by woodland, but the abundance of least skipper was lower on farms with more semi-natural habitat. The other study found that overall butterfly abundance was similar on farms surrounded by different proportions of woodland and arable land. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3910https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3910Wed, 10 Aug 2022 14:34:14 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Release captive-bred individuals to the wild Thirteen studies evaluated the effects of releasing captive-bred butterflies and moths into the wild. Nine studies were in the UK and one was in each of the UK and Ireland, the UK and the Netherlands, the USA and Poland and Slovakia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Abundance (10 studies): Six studies (including one before-and-after study) in the UK, the USA and Poland and Slovakia reported that captive-bred butterfly populations released as eggs, caterpillars, pupae and adults (sometimes into managed habitat or alongside translocated individuals) persisted for 2–28 years and increased in abundance (sometimes with continued captive-rearing of wild-laid caterpillars or supplemented by further releases). Two studies (including one review) in the UK reported that captive-bred large copper and belted beauty moth populations released as caterpillars (sometimes into managed habitat) died out one, two or 12 years after release, or required further releases to survive. One replicated study in the UK reported that three of 10 captive-bred barberry carpet moth populations released as caterpillars (and in one case as adults) established, and at least one persisted for five years. One review across the UK and Ireland found that 25% of captive-bred and translocated butterfly populations survived for >3 years, but 38% died out in that time, and only 8% were known to have survived for >10 years. Reproductive success (2 studies): One study in the UK reported that after the release of a captive-bred population of large copper, the number of eggs laid/female increased over the first three years. One before-and-after study in the UK reported captive-bred adult pearl-bordered fritillaries released into coppiced woodland successfully bred at least once. Survival (3 studies): Three studies (including two replicated, site comparison studies and one review) in the UK and the UK and the Netherlands found that released, captive-bred large copper caterpillars had a lower survival rate than captive, wild or translocated caterpillars. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3914https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3914Wed, 10 Aug 2022 15:06:58 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures (as in agri-environment schemes or conservation incentives) Thirty-two studies evaluated the effects of paying farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures on butterflies and moths. Eighteen studies were in the UK, eight were in Switzerland two were in Finland, and one was in each of Sweden, the Czech Republic, the USA and Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (18 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Switzerland found that the community composition of butterflies on grasslands that farmers were paid to manage for wildlife was similar to intensively managed grasslands. Richness/diversity (19 studies): Twelve of 15 studies (including eight controlled, one before-and-after and five site comparison studies) in Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Sweden found that the species richness or diversity of butterflies and moths on grassland, field margins, wildflower strips or whole farms managed under agri-environment schemes was higher than on conventional fields or farms. The other three studies found that the species richness of butterflies and micro-moths on grassland, field margins, wildflower strips or whole farms managed under agri-environment schemes was similar to conventional fields or farms. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in Switzerland found that the species richness of butterflies was higher in landscapes with a greater proportion of land managed under agri-environment schemes than in landscapes with a smaller proportion of agri-environment schemes, but the other study found that species richness of butterflies was similar on individual farms with more land managed under agri-environment schemes than on farms with smaller areas of agri-environment schemes. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that the species richness of butterflies on grassland sown under a conservation incentive program was similar to that on native prairie. One replicated, site comparison study in Finland found that the species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths on grassland managed under an agri-environment scheme was lower than on abandoned, unmanaged grassland. POPULATION RESPONSE (27 STUDIES) Abundance (27 studies): Seventeen of 19 studies (including seven controlled studies, one replicated, site comparison study, two before-and-after studies, and eight site comparison studies) in the UK, Sweden, Switzerland and Germany found that the abundance of butterflies and moths overall, and of specific species of butterflies or moths, in woodland, grassland, field margins, wildflower strips or whole farms managed under agri-environment schemes was higher than in unmanaged woodland or conventional fields or farms. The other two studies found that the abundance of butterflies and macro-moths on field margins managed under agri-environment schemes was similar to conventional margins. Three of four replicated studies (including one controlled and three site comparison studies) in the UK and Switzerland found that the abundance of butterflies was higher on farms or in landscapes with a higher proportion of land managed under agri-environment schemes than in areas with less land in agri-environment schemes. The other study found that the abundance of some species was higher, but others were lower, on farms with enhanced agri-environment management compared to simple management. Three studies (including one before-and-after and two replicated, site comparison studies) in Finland and the Czech Republic found that grassland grazed or restored under agri-environment scheme prescriptions had a lower abundance of all but three butterfly and day-flying moth species compared to unmanaged grassland, and that Danube clouded yellow abundance declined after agri-environment scheme mowing was initiated on abandoned grasslands. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that the abundance of butterflies on grassland sown under a conservation incentive program was lower than on native prairie. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3915https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3915Wed, 10 Aug 2022 15:41:00 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Rear declining species in captivity Twenty-two studies evaluated the effects of rearing declining species of butterfly and moth in captivity. Seven studies were in each of the UK and South Africa, two were in the USA, one was in each of the UK and France, Spain, Belgium, Poland and Israel, and one was a review. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (22 STUDIES) Abundance (6 studies): Three studies in the UK and the USA reported that populations of large copper, large white and monarch butterflies were successfully reared in captivity for 12 generations or >25 years. One study in the UK reported that a captive population of marsh fritillary increased in size over two years. One study in Poland reported that all captive-reared scarce large blue caterpillars died within 35 days. One review reported that attempts to rear caterpillars of four species of large blue had mixed success. Reproductive success (5 studies): One controlled study in the UK reported that female large copper laid more eggs, and these eggs had a higher hatching success, in a cage kept in a greenhouse than in a cage kept outside. One study in South Africa reported that a Dickson’s copper butterfly laid eggs in captivity in the presence of black cocktail ants from the site where she emerged but not from 10 km away. One study in the UK found that female large white from a population kept in captivity for >25 years laid more eggs than females from a population in its third generation in captivity. One study in the UK reported that Fisher’s estuarine moths successfully bred in captivity. One study in South Africa reported that wild-caught, gravid scarce mountain copper butterflies laid eggs but none hatched. Survival (14 studies): Five of six studies (including one replicated, controlled study, four controlled studies and one site comparison study) in the UK, the UK and France, Spain, Belgium and Poland found that large copper, large blue, mountain Alcon blue, cranberry fritillary and scarce large blue caterpillars had higher survival rates when reared on plants or in ant nests at a lower than higher density, in ant nests without queens or with winged females present than with queens or without winged females, when reared at 20 °C than 25 °C, and when reared with ants collected from sites where parasitic butterfly species occur than from sites where parasites do not occur. The sixth study found that mountain Alcon blue caterpillars had a similar survival rate in ant nests with or without queens present. Two of these studies, and one replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in the USA, found that the survival of large blue, mountain Alcon blue and monarch caterpillars differed when reared in ant nests of different species or on different species of milkweed. Two site comparison studies in the UK and the USA found that large copper and Puget blue eggs had a similar survival rate to the caterpillar and adult stage whether they were laid in captivity or collected from the wild and reared in captivity. One of these studies also found that Puget blue caterpillars kept in refrigerators while overwintering had a lower survival than caterpillars kept in environmental chambers or outside. Three of four studies in South Africa and the UK reported that some wild-collected Brenton blue butterfly, Karkloof blue butterfly and Fishers’ estuarine moth eggs hatched, survived as caterpillars for three months or to adulthood, bred in captivity and the resulting captive population survived for at least eight generations. The other study reported that wild-collected Brenton blue butterfly eggs hatched in captivity and those caterpillars reared with only Pyllanthus incurvatus leaves died whereas all caterpillars also given Indigofera erecta leaves survived to the fourth instar of development. One study in South Africa reported that wild-caught final instar Cape Peninsula butterfly caterpillars reared in an artificial pugnacious ant nest successfully pupated and became adults, but captive-hatched first instar Cape Peninsula and Riley’s skolly butterfly caterpillars placed next to a nest did not survive to pupation. Condition (5 studies): Two studies (including one controlled study) in the UK and the USA found that adult large white from a population kept in captivity for >25 years were heavier, and had smaller wings, than individuals from a population in its third generation in captivity, and captive-reared Puget blue adults were smaller than wild-caught butterflies. One of these studies also found that Puget blue caterpillars raised in environmental chambers or outdoor enclosures reached a similar size as adults. One replicated, controlled study in Spain found that mountain Alcon blue caterpillars reared in ant colonies with winged females were lighter than caterpillars reared in colonies without winged females. One replicated, controlled study in Israel found that spring webworm caterpillars fed vegetation from cattle-grazed pasture had a similar growth rate to caterpillars fed vegetation from an ungrazed paddock. One study in South Africa reported that Brenton blue butterfly caterpillars reared on Indigofera erecta leaves with no ants became dwarf adults, but those reared on whole Indigofera plants with an ant colony became full-sized adults. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3916https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3916Wed, 10 Aug 2022 18:16:38 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore arable land to permanent grassland Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring arable land to permanent grassland. Six studies were in the UK, two were in Finland, and one was in each of Switzerland and Taiwan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (9 STUDIES) Community composition (2 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Finland found that grasslands restored from bare soil by seeding developed butterfly communities that were increasingly similar to existing high-quality grasslands over the first 10 years after establishment. The other study found that older grasslands established by sowing with competitive seed mixes had a greater proportion of specialist butterflies than newer grasslands sown with less competitive species which required re-seeding every 4–5 years. Richness/diversity (8 studies): Three replicated, site comparison studies (including two paired studies) in Switzerland, the UK and Taiwan found that 4–5-year-old created grasslands and abandoned cropland had a greater species richness of butterflies, burnet moths and all moths than conventionally managed grassland or cultivated farms. Two of three replicated studies (including one randomized, paired, controlled study and two site comparison studies) in the UK and Finland found that grasslands established by sowing grasses, legumes and other non-woody, broadleaved plants (forbs), or perennial grass mixes, had a higher species richness of butterflies (in one case including other pollinators) than grasslands established with grass-only mixes or less competitive species. The third study found that grasslands established by sowing complex or simple seed mixes, or by natural regeneration, all had a similar species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths, but species richness was higher on grasslands created <10 years ago than on grasslands created >20 years ago. One before-and-after study in the UK found that after the adoption of an Environmentally Sensitive Areas scheme, including reverting arable land to permanent grassland, the species richness of large moths on a farm increased. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that over 10 years after restoration, the number of species of butterfly on seeded grassland remained similar each year. POPULATION RESPONSE (7 STUDIES) Abundance (7 studies): Two of three replicated, paired, site comparison studies in the UK and Taiwan found that restored grassland had a higher abundance of moths than conventional grassland or unrestored crop fields, and a similar abundance to semi-natural grasslands, but abundance did not increase with time since restoration. The third study found that abandoned cropland had a similar abundance of butterflies to cultivated farms. Two of three replicated studies (including one randomized, paired, controlled study and two site comparison studies) in the UK and Finland found that grasslands established by sowing grasses, legumes and other non-woody, broadleaved plants (forbs), or perennial grass mixes, had a higher abundance of butterflies (in one case including other pollinators) than grasslands established with grass-only mixes or less competitive species. The third study found that grasslands restored by sowing complex or simple seed mixes, or by natural regeneration, all had a similar abundance of caterpillars. One before-and-after study in the UK found that after the adoption of an Environmentally Sensitive Areas scheme on a farm, including reverting arable land to permanent grassland, the abundance of large moths and five species of butterfly increased, but the abundance of two species of butterfly decreased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3929https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3929Thu, 11 Aug 2022 18:15:43 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips Twenty-three studies evaluated the effects of planting nectar flower mixtures, or wildflower strips, on butterflies and moths. Eleven studies were in the UK, six were in Switzerland, two were in the USA, and one was in each of Sweden, Finland and Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (20 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (20 studies): Eight of thirteen studies (including twelve replicated studies, two randomized studies, five controlled studies, one before-and-after study, and eight site comparison studies) in the UK, Switzerland, Finland and Germany found that sown wildflower strips had a higher species richness and diversity of all butterflies, generalist butterflies, and moths than conventional field margins, unsown margins, cropped fields or conventional grassland. One of these studies also found that the species richness of specialist butterflies was similar in sown wildflower strips, cropped fields and conventional grassland. Four studies found that the species richness of butterflies was similar between sown wildflower strips and cropped fields, cropped margins, unsown strips or extensively managed meadows. The other study found that, five years after sowing wildflower strips, butterfly species richness, but not diversity had increased at one of two study sites. One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in the UK found that the species richness of butterflies and moths was similar on farms managed under agri-environment schemes, including with sown wildflower strips, and on conventionally managed farms. Two replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and one site comparison study) in the UK and Sweden found that field margins sown with wildflowers had a greater species richness of butterflies than grass-only field margins. One of two replicated, paired, controlled studies (including one randomized study) in the USA and the UK found that plots sown with a mix of wildflowers had a greater species richness of caterpillars than plots sown with a single flower species. The other study found that plots sown with either complex or simpler flower mixes had a similar species richness of butterflies. Two replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study) in the UK found that wildflower plots sown with phacelia, borage or lucerne had a higher species richness or diversity of butterflies and moths than plots sown with other flower species. POPULATION RESPONSE (16 STUDIES) Abundance (17 studies): Ten studies (including nine replicated studies, three randomized studies, three controlled studies and seven site comparison studies) in the UK, Switzerland and Finland found that sown wildflower strips had a higher abundance of all butterflies, generalist butterflies, specialist butterflies and meadow brown butterflies than conventional field margins, unsown margins, cropped fields, cropped margins, conventional grassland or extensively managed meadows. However, one of these studies only found this effect in one of two study years. Two of these studies also found that the abundance of specialist butterflies and meadow brown caterpillars was similar in sown wildflower strips and unsown margins, cropped fields and conventional grassland, and one found that the abundance of caterpillars was lower in sown wildflower strips than in conventional grassland. One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in the UK found that the abundance of butterflies and micro-moths was higher on farms managed under agri-environment schemes, including with sown wildflower strips, than on conventionally managed farms, but the abundance of other moths was similar. Two replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and one site comparison study) in the UK and Sweden found that field margins sown with wildflowers had a higher abundance of butterflies than grass-only field margins. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the UK found that farms with wildflower strips (along with other enhanced agri-environment scheme options) had a higher abundance of some butterflies, but a lower abundance of other butterflies, than farms with simpler agri-environment scheme management such as grass-only margins. One of two replicated, paired, controlled studies (including one randomized study) in the USA and the UK found that plots sown with one of three wildflower mixes had a higher abundance of moths than plots sown with two other mixes or a single flower species. The other study found that plots sown with either complex or simple flower mixes had a similar abundance of butterflies. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the UK found that wildflower plots sown with lucerne had a higher abundance of butterflies than plots sown with borage, chicory or sainfoin. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): Two studies (including one replicated study) in the UK and the USA reported that sown nectar flower plots and tropical milkweed plots were used by six species of butterflies and moths and monarch butterflies and caterpillars. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3932https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3932Fri, 12 Aug 2022 06:26:40 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Replant native vegetation Eleven studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of replanting native vegetation. Five studies were in the USA, two were in New Zealand, and one was in each of Switzerland, Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): One replicated, site comparison study in Ecuador found that native trees planted within recently abandoned pasture and secondary shrubland had a similar community composition of butterflies and moths after 7–8 years, but a subset of communities found on native trees planted within pine plantations, or on saplings regenerating naturally within pristine forest. One replicated, site comparison study in Brazil found that 12–14-year-old replanted and naturally regenerating forests had a different butterfly community to both grazed pasture and remnant forest. One site comparison study in Mexico found that a replanted forest had a different community composition of caterpillars to a naturally regenerating forest. Richness/diversity (5 studies): Four of five site comparison studies (including four replicated studies) in New Zealand, Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil and the USA found that replanted native shrubs, grasses, non-woody broadleaved plants (forbs) and trees had a similar species richness or diversity of butterflies, caterpillars and flower-visiting insects (including butterflies and moths) to vineyards, pasture, naturally regenerating and remnant forests, and remnant prairies. However, one of these studies also found that the species richness of butterflies in replanted native shrubs and grasslands was lower than in remnant native habitat. The fifth study found that, after 7–8 years, native trees planted in pine plantations had a greater species richness of butterflies and moths than trees planted in recently abandoned pasture, but both had a lower species richness than naturally regenerating saplings within pristine forest. POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (5 studies): Four of five site comparison studies (including four replicated studies) in New Zealand, Mexico and the USA found that replanted native shrubs, grasses, non-woody broadleaved plants (forbs), trees and translocated bamboo rush had a similar abundance of butterflies, caterpillars and flower-visiting insects (including butterflies and moths), and density of Fred the thread moth caterpillars to vineyards, pasture, naturally regenerating forest, remnant prairies and undisturbed bogs. However, one of these studies also found that replanted native shrubs and grasses had a lower abundance of butterflies than remnant native habitat. The fifth study found that common milkweed planted in meadows had fewer monarch butterfly eggs than milkweed planted in private gardens. Survival (2 studies): Two replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and one site comparison study) in the USA found that the survival of common sooty winged skipper and monarch butterfly eggs and caterpillars was similar on planted patches of lamb’s-quarters of different sizes, and on common milkweed planted in meadows or private gardens. Condition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in New Zealand found that Fred the thread moth caterpillars in translocated bamboo rush plants were a similar size to caterpillars in undisturbed bogs. BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (3 studies): Three studies in the USA and Switzerland reported that planted patches of silver lupine, prairie violet and bladder senna were used by wild mission blue and Iolas blue butterflies, and translocated regal fritillaries, for at least three or 4–10 years after planting. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3933https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3933Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:09:04 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or create forest or woodland Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring or creating forest or woodland. Three studies were in the UK, two studies were in Brazil and one was in each of the USA, Cameroon, Mexico, Malaysia and Costa Rica. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Community composition (4 studies): Three site comparison studies (including two replicated studies) in Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil found that naturally generating or secondary forest had a different community composition of caterpillars6, geometrid and arctiine moths and butterflies to replanted forest, oil palm plantations, pasture or remnant primary forest. One site comparison study in Brazil found that a 54-year-old restored forest had a higher proportion of fruit-feeding forest butterfly species than 11–22-year-old restored forests, and a similar community composition to a remnant forest. Richness/diversity (6 studies): Three replicated, site comparison studies in Cameroon, Costa Rica and Brazil found that secondary forest had a similar species richness of butterflies and geometrid and arctiine moths to agroforestry plantations, pasture and remnant forest. Two of these studies also found that secondary forest had a greater species richness of butterflies and geometrid and arctiine moths than cropland or oil palm plantations. One of two site comparison studies (including one replicated study) in Brazil and Malaysia found that a 54-year-old restored forest had a lower species richness of fruit-feeding butterflies than 11–22-year-old restored forests. The other study found that 5–60-year-old restored forests had a greater species richness of butterflies than newly restored forests (<3-years-old), but restored forests had a lower species richness than primary forests. One site comparison study in Mexico found that a forest restored by natural regeneration had a similar diversity of caterpillars to a forest restored by planting. POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (6 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in Cameroon and Costa Rica found that secondary forest had a higher abundance of butterflies and geometrid and arctiine moths than cropland or oil palm plantations. One of these studies also found that secondary forest had a similar abundance of butterflies to coffee and cocoa agroforestry, and the other study also found that secondary forest had a lower abundance of geometrid and arctiine moths than primary forest. One site comparison study in Mexico found that a forest restored by natural regeneration had a similar abundance of caterpillars to a forest restored by planting. Two of three studies in the UK reported that where forest had been restored with coppicing, felling and ride management, the number of populations of high brown fritillary, pearl-bordered fritillary, wood white and grizzled skipper stayed the same or increased. The other study found that the number of heath fritillary colonies decreased after management. BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (3 studies): Two studies (including one paired study) in the USA and the UK found that in forest restored with selective logging or coppicing, felling and ride widening orange sulphur and heath fritillary butterflies, but not pine white butterflies, flew into restored areas more than unrestored areas and occupied a greater area than before the sites were restored. One replicated, before-and-after study in the UK reported that in forest restored with coppicing, felling and ride management, high brown fritillary presence was the same or higher than before restoration, and after restoration the butterflies were more likely to be present at sites with high brash and bracken litter coverage.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3936https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3936Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:54:54 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Clear or open patches in forests Fourteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of clearing or opening patches in forests. Five studies were in the UK, two were in each of Finland and Japan one was in each of Sweden, the USA and Canada and the Czech Republic, and one was a review across Europe. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that wider woodland rides (and coppiced woodland) contained more unique species of macro-moth than standard width rides or mature forest. Richness/diversity (6 studies): Three replicated studies (including one controlled study, one site comparison study and one paired sites, controlled study) in the UK, Japan and the Czech Republic found that cleared patches in forests had a greater species richness of butterflies but a lower species richness of moths than unmanaged patches, coppiced woodland or closed canopy forest. One of these studies also found that the species richness of butterflies declined over the first three years after clearing. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Canada found that larger, but not smaller, cleared patches supported a higher species richness of butterflies than undisturbed forest. The other study found that both wider and standard width rides had a similar species richness of macro-moths to mature forest. One replicated, site comparison study in Japan found that cleared forest patches had a similar species richness of butterflies to semi-natural grassland, although six species were only observed in cleared patches, compared to 15 species only observed in grassland. POPULATION RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Abundance (10 studies): Five studies (including one replicated, controlled, before-and-after study, one replicated, controlled study and one replicated, site comparison study and two before-and-after studies) in the UK, Finland, Sweden and Japan found that cleared patches in forests, which were also managed with coppicing and grazing, had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and chequered blue, woodland brown, high brown fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary specifically, than before management, or than unmanaged or coppiced areas. One of these studies also found that the abundance of butterflies declined over the first three years after clearing. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Canada found that larger, but not smaller, cleared patches had a higher abundance of butterflies than undisturbed forest. The other study found that wider rides had a lower abundance of macro-moths than standard width rides or mature forest. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that patches cleared 2–4 years ago had a greater abundance of heath fritillary than patches cleared 7–11 years ago or patches in their first year after clearance. One study in Finland reported that, in an area with selected clearance of pines, a translocated population of baton blue butterflies increased in number over two years. One review across Europe reported that clearing small patches in forests benefitted 19 out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern. Survival (1 study): One study in Finland reported that, in an area with selected clearance of pines, a translocated population of baton blue survived for at least two years. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDY) Use (2 studies): One paired sites study in the USA found that orange sulphur butterflies, but not pine whites, flew into areas with selective clearance of pines more often than other areas. One replicated, before-and-after, site comparison study in the UK reported that in cleared patches in forests, which were also managed with cutting, grazing and ride widening, pearl-bordered fritillary and Duke of Burgundy breeding sites increased compared to before management. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3938https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3938Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:56:39 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Coppice woodland Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of coppicing woodland. Eight studies were in the UK and one was in each of France and Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and France found that coppiced woodland of different ages supported different communities of moths and butterflies. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that coppiced woodland contained more unique species of macro-moth than mature forest. Richness/diversity (4 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK found that coppiced woodland had a greater species richness of butterflies than unmanaged woodland. The other study found that coppiced woodland had a lower species richness of macro-moths than mature forest, and there was no change in species richness with the age of coppice. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and France found that woodland coppiced two years ago had a greater species richness of butterflies than woodland coppiced >15 years ago. The other study found that the species richness of moths was similar in woodland coppiced 1–4, 5–8 and 12–20 years ago. POPULATION RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Abundance (9 studies): Two of four site comparison studies (including three replicated studies and one before-and-after study) in the UK found that coppiced woodland (in one case also legally protected) had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and of heath fritillary specifically, than unmanaged woodland. One study found that pearl-bordered fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary populations were more likely to persist for up to 20 years in coppiced woodland (or woodland with young plantations) than in mature conifer woodland. The fourth study found that the abundance of macro-moths was lower in coppiced woodland than in mature forest, and there was no change in abundance with the age of coppice. Three of four replicated, site comparison studies (including one before-and-after study) in the UK, France and Germany found that the abundance of butterflies generally, heath fritillary specifically, and eastern eggar moth and scarce fritillary caterpillar webs, was higher in woodland coppiced two, two–four, five–seven or 12–15 years ago than in woodland coppiced 5–11 or >15 years ago. The fourth study reported that the abundance of moths was similar in woodland coppiced 1–4, 5–8 and 12–20 years ago. One before-and-after study in the UK reported that after coppicing, along with scrub control, tree felling and grazing, high brown fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary abundance increased. Reproductive success (1 study): One before-and-after study in the UK reported that pearl-bordered fritillaries released into coppiced woodland bred at least once. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3939https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3939Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:56:58 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cease grazing on grassland to allow early succession Twenty-six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of ceasing grazing on grassland to allow early succession. Five studies were in the UK, four were in each of Germany and the USA, three were in each of Sweden and Finland, two were in each of Spain and the Czech Republic, and one was in each of Switzerland, Europe and Israel. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (14 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Czech Republic and Germany found that the community composition of butterflies and moths in grasslands which had been abandoned for >5 years or an unspecified length of time was similar to grasslands managed by grazing or mowing (results not distinguished). One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in Spain found that after grazing and mowing management was abandoned, over 6 years the butterfly community became dominated by generalist species, and species with fewer generations/year. Richness/diversity (12 studies): Six of nine replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study, one paired, site comparison, and seven site comparisons) in Germany, the USA, Finland, Sweden and the Czech Republic found that grasslands which had been not been grazed for >5 years, or an unspecified length of time, in one case with burning, had a similar species richness of butterflies and day-flying, burnet or all moths to grasslands grazed by cattle, horses and cattle or a mix of livestock (in two studies grazing and mowing were not distinguished) or grazed with cattle and burned. One of these studies also found that grasslands abandoned for 5–15 years had a greater species richness than grasslands grazed by sheep. A further two studies found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >5–20 years or many years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grazed grasslands (in one study grazing and mowing were not distinguished). The other study found that butterfly species richness was higher in grasslands where grazing ceased 2–9 years ago than those abandoned >10 years ago or those currently grazed. Three replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and two site comparison studies) in Switzerland, Germany and the UK found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 4, 5–10 or >10 years had a higher species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths and nocturnal moths than extensively grazed, recently abandoned or commercially grazed grasslands. Two of these studies also found that grassland abandoned for 4 or 5–10 years had a similar species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths and all moths to grassland lightly grazed by cattle or sheep/sheep and cattle. POPULATION RESPONSE (24 STUDIES) Abundance (24 studies): Six of 20 replicated studies (including one paired, controlled, before-and-after study, three randomized controlled studies, and 15 site comparison studies) in Germany, the USA, the UK, Switzerland, Finland, Sweden, Spain, the Czech Republic and Israel found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 1-25 years had a higher abundance of Scotch argus, butterflies and day-flying moths, nocturnal moths, caterpillars, and of small insects including caterpillars, than grasslands grazed by goats, sheep and/or cattle. Two of these studies only found a difference compared to grazing at commercial/intensive, not low, densities. Four of the studies found that grasslands which had been abandoned for two weeks, 5–20 years or an undetermined time had a lower abundance of butterflies and spring webworm caterpillars than grasslands grazed by cattle or a mix of livestock (in two studies grazing and mowing were not distinguished). A further four of the studies found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 5-15 years had a similar abundance of butterflies, burnet moths, day-flying moths and meadow neb moth caterpillars to grasslands grazed by sheep, horses and cattle or a mix of livestock. A further four of the studies found that in grasslands which had been abandoned for >10 years, many years or an unspecified number of years, and in one case with burning, abundance or density was mixed depending on butterfly and moth species compared to grasslands grazed by cattle or unspecified grazers or grazed with cattle and burned. The other study found that butterfly density was higher in grasslands where grazing ceased 2–9 years ago than those abandoned >10 years ago or those currently grazed. Two replicated studies (including one controlled, before-and-after study and one site comparison study) in Spain and Germany found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 1–6 years or an unspecified time period had a higher abundance of woodland and hedgerow butterflies and burnet moths, but a lower abundance of grassland or farmland species, than grasslands managed by grazing and/or mowing (results not distinguished). Two studies also found that the large blue and silver-studded blue went extinct in some abandoned meadows. One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden found that grasslands which were ungrazed for the year had a lower abundance of clouded Apollo butterflies than lightly grazed grasslands, but a higher abundance than heavily grazed grasslands. One review in Europe reported that ceasing grazing on grassland benefitted six out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern. BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (3 studies): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Germany found that grassland which had been abandoned for >5 years had a similar occurrence of hoary bell moth caterpillars to grassland grazed by sheep. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that a similar proportion of grasslands which had been abandoned for one year, and grazed grasslands, contained >20 marsh fritillary caterpillar webs. One replicated, site comparison study in Spain found that grizzled skipper and painted lady occurred less frequently, but small pearl-bordered fritillary occurred more frequently, in meadows which had been abandoned for at least 1–2 years than in meadows managed by grazing or mowing (results not distinguished). Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3956https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3956Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:36:11 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cease mowing on grassland to allow early succession Sixteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of ceasing mowing on grassland to allow early succession. Three studies were in Germany, two were in each of the USA, Spain and the Czech Republic, and one was in each of Switzerland, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Japan, Russia and Italy. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (8 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Czech Republic and Germany found that the community composition of butterflies and moths in grasslands which had been abandoned for >5 years or an unspecified length of time was similar to grasslands managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in Spain found that after mowing and grazing was abandoned, over 6 years the butterfly community became dominated by generalist species, and species with fewer generations/year. Richness/diversity (7 studies): Five of seven replicated, site comparison studies in Germany, Poland, Japan, the Czech Republic, Russia and Italy found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 3–13 years, 10–20 years or an unspecified length of time, had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths or all moths to grasslands managed by annual or unspecified frequency mowing, or mown within the last three years (in two studies mowing and grazing were not distinguished). One of these studies also found that grasslands abandoned for more than 50 years had lower species richness than grasslands mowed annually to up to 20 years ago, and another found that grasslands abandoned for 6–13 years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grasslands managed by traditional rotational mowing and burning. One of the studies found that meadows not cut all summer had a higher species richness of butterflies than meadows cut 1–3 times/summer. The other study found that grasslands abandoned for at least 5–20 years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grasslands managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). POPULATION RESPONSE (14 STUDIES) Abundance (14 studies): Four replicated studies (including one randomized, paired, controlled study and three site comparison studies) in Germany, Spain, Slovakia and Hungary found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >1–20 years had a lower abundance of all butterflies or some species of butterfly and caterpillars, than grasslands managed by mowing once or twice per year (in two studies mowing and grazing were not distinguished). Four replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in Germany, the Czech Republic, Russia and Italy found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >3 years, were temporarily abandoned, or were uncut all summer, had a higher abundance of all butterflies, 11 species of butterfly, Scotch argus adults and meadow neb moth caterpillars, than grasslands managed by mowing annually, 1–3 times/summer, or within the last three years. Two replicated studies (including one controlled, before-and-after study and one site comparison study) in Spain and Germany found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 1–6 years or an unspecified time period had a higher abundance of woodland and hedgerow butterflies and burnet moths, but a lower abundance of grassland or farmland species, than grasslands managed by mowing and/or grazing (results not distinguished). One of these studies also found that silver-studded blue went extinct in some abandoned meadows. Three replicated, site comparison studies in the USA and Poland found that in grasslands which had been abandoned for many years or 10 to over 50 years before abundance was mixed depending on butterfly species compared to grasslands managed by grazing or mowing. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that grasslands which had been abandoned for around six years had a similar abundance of heath fritillary adults and caterpillars to grasslands managed by annual mowing, but that grasslands abandoned for >25 years had a lower abundance of adults and no caterpillars. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Germany found that grassland which had been abandoned for >5 years had a similar occurrence of hoary bell moth caterpillars to grassland managed by mowing. One replicated, site comparison study in Spain found that grizzled skipper and painted lady occurred less frequently, but small pearl-bordered fritillary occurred more frequently, in meadows which had been abandoned for at least 1–2 years than in meadows managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3957https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3957Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:36:48 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Reduce management intensity on permanent grasslands (several interventions at once) Twelve studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of reducing management intensity on permanent grasslands. Seven studies were in Switzerland, three were in the UK, and one was in each of Greece and Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Community composition (2 studies): Two replicated studies (including one controlled study and one site comparison study) in Switzerland found that the composition of butterfly communities differed between low-input and intensively managed grasslands. One of these studies found that low-input grasslands tended to have more butterfly species whose caterpillars feed on a single host plant, have one generation/year and poor dispersal ability. Richness/diversity (11 studies): Six of 10 studies (including five controlled studies and five site comparison studies) in Switzerland, the UK, Greece and Germany found that less intensively managed grasslands had a higher species richness of butterflies and moths than conventionally managed grasslands, although two of these studies only found a difference in one of two years or regions. The other four studies found that less intensively managed grasslands had a similar species richness of butterflies and moths to conventionally managed grasslands. However, one of these studies also found that less intensively managed grassland had more specialist species of moths, and species of conservation concern, than conventionally managed grassland. One before-and-after study in the UK found that after grazing was reduced and chemical application stopped, the species richness of large moths increased. POPULATION RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Abundance (5 studies): Three of four replicated studies (including two controlled studies and two site comparison studies) in Switzerland, the UK and Germany found that low-input or unfertilized, ungrazed grassland managed with a single cut had a higher abundance of butterflies, micro-moths and declining macro-moths than intensively managed grassland. Two of these studies also found that the abundance of caterpillars and of all macro-moths was similar between less intensively and more intensively managed grasslands. The other study found that less intensively managed grassland had a similar abundance of moths to more intensively managed grassland. One before-and-after study in the UK found that after grazing was reduced and chemical application stopped, the total abundance of large moths and the abundance of five out of 23 butterfly species increased, but the abundance of two butterfly species decreased. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Germany reported that 24 out of 58 moth species preferred less intensively managed grasslands, but 12 species preferred more intensively managed grasslands. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3958https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3958Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:37:05 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Reduce grazing intensity on grassland by reducing stocking density Fourteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of reducing grazing intensity on grassland by reducing stocking density. Four studies were in the UK, two were in each of Sweden and Germany, one was in each of the USA, Belgium and the Netherlands, Europe and Switzerland. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (8 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (8 studies): Five of eight replicated studies (including two randomized, controlled studies and six site comparison studies) in the UK, Sweden, Germany, the USA and Switzerland found that grasslands grazed with lower stocking densities of sheep, cattle or a mix of sheep, cattle and horses had a greater species richness of adult butterflies, all moths and burnet moths than grassland grazed at higher stocking densities. However, one of these studies also found that butterfly and burnet moth caterpillar species richness was similar at sites with low and high stocking densities. Two of the other studies found that grasslands grazed with lower stocking densities of cattle and horses or unspecified grazing animals had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths to grassland grazed at higher stocking densities. The other study found that, in one of two study years, grasslands grazed with cattle at a low density had lower species richness than grasslands grazed at moderate density. POPULATION RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Abundance (11 studies): Eight replicated studies (including four controlled studies and four site comparison studies) in the UK, Germany, the USA and Sweden found that grasslands grazed with lower stocking densities of sheep, cattle or both (in one case combined with a later start to grazing) had a greater abundance of all butterflies, butterflies with grass host plants, all moths, burnet moths, their caterpillars or specific species (in two cases as part of combined invertebrate counts) than grasslands grazed at higher stocking densities. The three studies on caterpillars only found a higher abundance at two out of three sites or in earlier or later sampling periods, and one of the studies found that sites with low and high intensity grazing had a similar abundance of butterfly and burnet moth caterpillars. Two replicated, site comparison studies in Sweden and Switzerland found that grasslands grazed with lower stocking densities of cattle and horses or unspecified grazing animals had a similar abundance of butterflies and burnet moths to grassland grazed at higher stocking densities. One review of studies in Europe reported that reducing grazing intensity benefitted 41 out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern, but did not distinguish between reducing stocking density and seasonal removal of livestock. Survival (1 study): One site comparison study in Belgium and the Netherlands reported that the survival of Glanville fritillary caterpillar nests was similar between grasslands with low and high stocking density of sheep. Condition (1 study): One site comparison study in Belgium and the Netherlands found that after 6–10 days of sheep grazing, fewer Glanville fritillary caterpillar nests were damaged in a grassland with lower stocking density than in a grassland with higher stocking density, but there was no difference after two months. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3959https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3959Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:37:16 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use rotational mowing Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of using rotational mowing. Two studies were in each of the USA, the Czech Republic and Switzerland, and one was in each of the UK, Germany, Europe and Japan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the Czech Republic found that grasslands managed with “mixed management”, which included mowing parts of a site at different times and leaving some areas uncut, had a similar community composition of butterflies, but a different community composition of moths, to grasslands managed by complete annual mowing. Richness/diversity (6 studies): Three of four replicated studies (including two paired, controlled studies and two site comparison studies) in Germany, Switzerland, Japan and the Czech Republic found that grasslands managed by mowing strips in alternate years, by mowing and burning one half of the meadow each year, or by mowing parts of a site at different times and leaving some areas uncut, had a greater species richness and diversity of butterflies than grasslands cut in full once/year. However, one of these studies also found that grasslands managed by mowing parts of a site at different times and leaving some areas uncut had a lower species richness of moths than grasslands cut in full once/year. The fourth study found that grasslands managed by leaving a rotational area uncut on each mow had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths to grasslands cut in full twice/year. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that rotationally managed grasslands, including some rotationally mown grasslands, which were last managed longer ago had a higher species richness of butterflies than more recently managed grasslands. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that farms managed with more in-field agri-environment scheme (AES) options, including staggered mowing dates, had a similar species richness of butterflies to farms with fewer AES options. POPULATION RESPONSE (7 STUDIES) Abundance (7 studies): Two replicated, paired, controlled studies (including one randomized study) in Germany and Switzerland found that grasslands managed by mowing strips in alternate years, or by leaving a rotational area uncut on each mow, had a higher abundance of butterflies and burnet moths than grasslands cut in full once or twice per year. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA found that rotationally managed grasslands, including some rotationally mown grasslands, which were last managed longer ago had a higher abundance of butterflies than more recently managed grasslands. The other study found that rotationally mown grasslands had a lower abundance of butterflies in the second year after they were last cut than in the first year after mowing. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK reported that two heath fritillary populations survived on rotationally mown grasslands while six populations went extinct on unmanaged grasslands. One review in Europe reported that rotationally mowing grassland benefitted 27 out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that farms managed with more in-field agri-environment scheme (AES) options, including staggered mowing dates, had a similar abundance of butterflies to farms with fewer AES options. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in the Czech Republic found that 29 out of 32 butterfly species preferred meadows which were half mown in June and August to meadows cut in full twice/year. The other three species were woodland species which only visited meadows temporarily. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3966https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3966Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:38:31 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Manage hedgerows to benefit wildlife (e.g. no spray, gap-filling and laying) Seventeen studies evaluated the effects of managing hedgerows to benefit wildlife on butterflies and moths. Fourteen studies were in the UK, and one was in each of Belgium, Costa Rica and Italy. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (9 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (9 studies): Three replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Costa Rica found that hedgerows with trees or a more complex structure had a higher species richness or diversity of butterflies and macro-moths than simpler hedgerows without trees. Three of six replicated studies (including three randomized, paired, controlled studies, one randomized, site comparison, and two site comparison studies) in the UK and Italy found that hedgerows cut to allow incremental growth had a higher diversity of caterpillars and pupae than hedgerows cut to the same size, that hedgerows kept between 1–2 m tall had a higher species richness of butterflies than hedgerows kept below 1 m tall and that fields with hedgerows of a larger volume had higher species richness of butterflies than those with hedgerows of a smaller volume, but only in one of two study years. The other three studies found that hedgerows managed according to agri-environment scheme prescriptions (including less frequent or winter cutting, gap-filling and restricted mowing, in one case in combination with other agri-environment scheme habitat) had a similar species richness of butterflies and moths to conventionally managed hedgerows. POPULATION RESPONSE (17 STUDIES) Abundance (17 studies): Four of six replicated studies (including four randomized, paired, controlled studies, one controlled study, and one paired, site comparison study) in the UK found that hedgerows cut once every 2–3 years, cut in autumn, or cut to allow incremental growth, had a higher abundance of adult butterflies and moths, moth caterpillars and pupae and brown hairstreak eggs than hedgerows cut to the same size every winter. However, one of these studies also found that hedgerows cut to allow incremental growth had a similar abundance of moth caterpillars and pupae to hedgerows cut to the same size. The other two studies found that hedgerows managed by gap-filling and cutting every three years had a similar abundance of moths to conventionally managed hedgerows, and that hedgerows cut in winter, or less frequently in autumn, had more concealed moth caterpillars, but a similar abundance of free-living caterpillars, to hedgerows cut annually in autumn. Three of five replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in the UK and Costa Rica found that hedgerows with trees had a similar total abundance of macro-moths to hedgerows without trees. The other two studies found that hedgerows with trees, or with a more complex structure, had a higher abundance of butterflies and pale shining brown moths than simple hedgerows. Two replicated, site comparison studies in Belgium and Italy found that hedgerows managed with scalloped edges, or maintained at below 1 m tall, had more brown hairstreak eggs and a higher abundance of adult butterflies, than hedgerows with straight edges or allowed to grow over 2 m tall. One of two studies (including one controlled and one replicated, site comparison study) in the UK found that laid or coppiced hedgerows had a higher abundance of butterflies than unmanaged hedgerows. The other study found that managed hedgerows had a lower abundance of caterpillars than remnant hedgerows. One replicated, randomized, site comparison study in the UK found that butterfly abundance was higher in fields with hedgerows of a larger volume, but only in one of two study years. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that field margins next to hedgerow trees had a higher abundance of most shrub- and tree-feeding, but not grass- and herb-feeding, moth species than margins away from hedgerow trees. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3975https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3975Thu, 18 Aug 2022 09:18:48 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Plant grass buffer strips/margins around arable or pasture fields Twenty-six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of planting grass margins around arable or pasture fields. Seventeen were in the UK, two were in each of Sweden, the Netherlands and the USA, and one was in each of China, France and Italy. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (15 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (15 studies): One of two replicated, controlled studies in the UK found that 2-m grass margins had a greater species richness of butterflies than cropped field edges, but 6-m grass margins did not. The other study found that the species richness of butterflies was similar in grass margins and cropped field edges. Five replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in the USA, the UK and Italy found that wider grass margins (up to 6 m wide) had a greater species richness or diversity of butterflies, macro-moths and micro-moths than narrower or conventional width margins, although one of these studies found that the species richness of macro-moths was similar in wide and conventional grass margins. Three of five replicated studies (including three randomized, controlled studies, one controlled study, and one site comparison study) in the UK and Sweden found that floristically enhanced grass buffers or wildflower strips had a greater species richness of butterflies than standard grass margins. The other two studies found that farms with floristically enhanced margins (along with other enhanced agri-environment scheme (AES) options) had a similar species richness of butterflies and moths to farms with standard grass margins (along with basic AES options) and farms with no grass margins or other AES options. One site comparison study in Sweden found that grass margins sown with legumes or a clover and grass ley had a higher species richness of butterflies and moths than uncultivated margins, but less than a species-rich pasture. One replicated study in the Netherlands found that the species richness of butterflies increased over time after the establishment of grass margins. One replicated, randomized, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that disking or burning grass margins did not affect the species richness of butterflies. POPULATION RESPONSE (22 STUDIES) Abundance (21 studies): Three of four replicated, controlled studies in the UK found that grass margins had a higher abundance of butterflies than cropped field edges. The other study found that the abundance of gatekeepers on grass margins increased over four years after they were sown, but was only higher than cropped field edges at one of three farms after 2–4 years. Three of seven replicated, site comparison studies (including two paired studies) in the USA and the UK found that wider grass margins (up to 6 m wide) had a higher abundance of habitat-sensitive butterflies, macro-moths and micro-moths than narrower or conventional width margins. Two of these studies, and the other four studies, found that the abundance of disturbance-tolerant butterflies, macro-moths generally, and pale shining brown moths specifically, was similar in wide and conventional grass margins. Four replicated studies (including two randomized, controlled studies, one controlled study, and one site comparison study) in the UK and Sweden found that floristically enhanced grass buffers or wildflower strips had a higher abundance of butterflies than standard grass margins, uncultivated margins or margins sown with cereal crop. Two replicated, randomized, controlled studies in the UK found that farms with floristically enhanced margins (along with other enhanced agri-environment scheme (AES) options) had a higher abundance of some butterflies and micro-moths, a similar abundance of macro-moths, but a lower abundance of other butterflies, than farms with standard grass margins (along with basic AES options) and farms with no grass margins or other AES options. One site comparison study in Sweden found that grass margins sown with legumes or a clover and grass ley had a higher abundance of butterflies and moths than uncultivated margins or a species-rich pasture. Two replicated, before-and-after studies (including one randomized, controlled study) in the Netherlands and the USA found that mowing, disking or burning grass margins did not affect the abundance of butterflies and moths generally, or diamondback moths specifically, but that disking increased the abundance of disturbance-tolerant butterflies. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in the UK found that field margins had a similar abundance of butterfly and moth caterpillars to beetle banks established in the middle of fields. Survival (1 study): One site comparison study in China found that the survival of marsh fritillary caterpillars in grass margins around lightly cultivated fields was lower, but survival of egg clusters similar, to in uncultivated, grazed meadows. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated, site comparison study in China found that grass margins around lightly cultivated fields were more likely to be occupied by marsh fritillary eggs and caterpillars than uncultivated, grazed meadows. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in France found that meadow brown butterflies used grass margins in a similar way to meadows. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3982https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3982Thu, 18 Aug 2022 11:38:08 +0100
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

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Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust