Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use signs or access restrictions to reduce disturbance to mammals One study evaluated the effects of using signs or access restrictions to reduce disturbance to mammals. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A replicated, paired sites, site comparison study in the USA found that removing or closing roads increased use of those areas by black bears. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2325https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2325Thu, 21 May 2020 08:38:49 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Keep cats indoors or in outside runs to reduce predation of wild mammals One study evaluated the effects on potential prey mammals of keeping cats indoors or in outside runs. This study was in the UK. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): One replicated study in the UK found that keeping domestic cats indoors at night reduced the number of dead or injured mammals that were brought home. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2326https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2326Thu, 21 May 2020 09:53:43 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Habituate mammals to visitors One study evaluated the effects of habituating mammals to visitors. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A study in the USA found that brown bears that were highly habituated to humans showed less aggression towards human visitors than did non-habituated bears. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2340https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2340Thu, 21 May 2020 15:54:17 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Treat mammals to reduce conflict caused by disease transmission to humans One study evaluated the effects of treating mammals to reduce conflict caused by disease transmission to humans. This study was in Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A controlled, before-and-after study in Germany found that following a worming programme, proportions of red foxes infested with small fox tapeworm fell. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2342https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2342Thu, 21 May 2020 17:23:37 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Issue enforcement notices to deter use of non bear-proof garbage dumpsters to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of issuing enforcement notices to deter use of non bear-proof garbage dumpsters to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that issuing enforcement notices requiring appropriate dumpster use did not reduce garbage accessibility to black bears. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2345https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2345Fri, 22 May 2020 13:17:38 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cease/reduce payments to cull mammals One study evaluated the effects of ceasing or reducing payments to cull mammals. This study was in Sweden and Norway. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A before-and-after study in Sweden and Norway found that fewer brown bears were reported killed after the removal of financial hunting incentives. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2349https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2349Tue, 26 May 2020 08:24:48 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Retain wildlife corridors in residential areas One study evaluated the effects on mammals of retaining wildlife corridors in residential areas. This study was in Botswana. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A replicated study in Botswana found that retained wildlife corridors in residential areas were used by 19 mammal species, including African elephants. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2354https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2354Tue, 26 May 2020 11:35:26 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Install underpasses beneath ski runs One study evaluated the effects on mammals of installing underpasses beneath ski runs. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A replicated study in Australia found that boulder-filled crossings beneath ski slopes were used by seven small mammal species. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2355https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2355Tue, 26 May 2020 11:59:24 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Provide woody debris in ski run area One study evaluated the effects on mammals of providing woody debris in ski run areas. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A controlled study in the USA found that placing woody debris on ski slopes did not affect overall small mammal abundance and had mixed effects on individual species abundances. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2356https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2356Tue, 26 May 2020 13:30:50 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use repellent on slug pellets to reduce non-target poisoning One study evaluated the effects on mammals of using repellent on slug pellets to reduce non-target poisoning. This study was in the UK. KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A replicated, controlled study in the UK found that, at some concentrations, food treated with a bitter substance was consumed less by wood mice but not by bank voles or common shrews. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2390https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2390Thu, 28 May 2020 09:09:33 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create beetle banks on farmland One study evaluated the effects on mammals of creating beetle banks on farmland. This study was in the UK. KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated study in the UK found that beetle banks had higher densities of harvest mouse nests than did field margins. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2393https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2393Thu, 28 May 2020 09:40:32 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Graze herbivores on pasture, instead of sustaining with artificial foods One study evaluated the effects of grazing mammalian herbivores on pasture, instead of sustaining with artificial foods. This study was in South Africa. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): A site comparison study in South Africa found that a population of roan antelope grazed on pasture had a higher population growth rate than populations provided solely with imported feed. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2398https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2398Thu, 28 May 2020 10:46:59 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Leave cut vegetation in field to provide cover One study evaluated the effects on mammals of leaving cut vegetation in field to provide cover. This study was in the USA KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that increasing cover, by adding cut vegetation (hay), did not increase rodent abundance. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2401https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2401Thu, 28 May 2020 11:01:45 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Establish long-term cover on erodible cropland One study evaluated the effects on mammals of establishing long-term cover on erodible cropland. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A replicated, site comparison study in the USA, found that establishing long-term cover on erodible cropland did not increase the abundance of eastern cottontails. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2402https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2402Thu, 28 May 2020 11:16:49 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use traditional breeds of livestock One study evaluated the effects of using traditional breeds of livestock on wild mammals. This study was carried out in four European countries. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A replicated, randomized, controlled study in Europe found that European hares did not use areas grazed by traditional livestock breeds more than they used areas grazed by commercial breeds. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2411https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2411Fri, 29 May 2020 13:25:23 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Relocate local pastoralist communities to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects on mammals of relocating local pastoralists to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in India. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A study in India found that after most pastoralists were relocated outside of an area, Asiatic lion numbers increased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2413https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2413Fri, 29 May 2020 15:34:18 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Train and support local staff to help reduce persecution of mammals One study evaluated the effects of training and supporting local staff to help reduce persecution of mammals. This study was in Kenya. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A replicated, before-and-after study in Kenya found that employing local tribesmen to dissuade pastoralists from killing lions and to assist with livestock protection measures, alongside compensating for livestock killed by lions, reduced lion killings by pastoralists. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2425https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2425Mon, 01 Jun 2020 14:45:20 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Publish data on ranger performance to motivate increased anti-poacher efforts One study evaluated the effects on poaching incidents of publishing data on ranger performance to motivate increased anti-poacher efforts. This study was in Ghana. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A replicated, before-and-after, site comparison study in Ghana found that when data were publishing on staff performance, poaching incidents decreased on these sites and on sites from which performance data were not published. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human behaviour change (1 study): A replicated, before-and-after, site comparison study in Ghana found that publishing data on staff performance lead to an increase in anti-poaching patrols. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2426https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2426Mon, 01 Jun 2020 14:50:54 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Dispose of livestock carcasses to deter predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of disposing of livestock carcasses to deter predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): One site comparison study in the USA found that burying or removing sheep carcasses reduced predation on livestock by coyotes, but burning carcasses did not alter livestock predation rates. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2432https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2432Tue, 02 Jun 2020 08:05:12 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use wildlife refuges to reduce hunting impacts Two studies evaluated the effects on mammal species of using wildlife refuges to reduce hunting impacts. One study was in Canada and one was in Mexico. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One of two replicated site comparison studies in Canada and Mexico found more moose in areas with limited hunting than in more heavily hunted areas. The other study found mixed results with only one of five species being more numerous in a non-hunted refuge. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2612https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2612Thu, 11 Jun 2020 17:07:10 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use road lighting to reduce vehicle collisions with mammals Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of using road lighting to reduce vehicle collisions with mammals. Both studies were in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Survival (2 studies): One of two studies (one controlled and one before-and-after), in the USA, found that road lighting reduced vehicle collisions with moose. The other study found that road lighting did not reduce vehicle collisions with mule deer. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2614https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2614Fri, 12 Jun 2020 08:16:01 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Install overpasses over waterways Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of installing overpasses over waterways. One study was in the USA and one was in Spain. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): Two studies (one replicated, one a site comparison) in the USA and Spain, found that bridges and overpasses over waterways were used by desert mule deer, collared peccaries and coyotes and by a range of large and medium-sized mammals. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2628https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2628Fri, 12 Jun 2020 11:38:42 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Retain undisturbed patches during thinning operations Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of retaining undisturbed patches during thinning operations. Both studies were in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): Two randomized, replicated, controlled studies (one also before-and-after) in the USA found that snowshoe hares and tassel-eared squirrels used retained undisturbed forest patches more than thinned areas. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2640https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2640Fri, 12 Jun 2020 15:37:42 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Retain wildlife corridors in logged areas Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of retaining wildlife corridors in logged areas. One study was in Australia and one was in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): A replicated study in Australia found that corridors of trees, retained after harvesting, supported seven species of arboreal marsupial. A replicated, controlled study in Canada found that lines of woody debris through clearcut areas that were connected to adjacent forest were not used more by red-backed voles than were isolated lines of woody debris. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2651https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2651Sat, 13 Jun 2020 18:33:04 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Gather coarse woody debris into piles after felling Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of gathering coarse woody debris into piles after felling. Both studies were in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): A randomized, replicated, controlled study in Canada found higher mammal species richness where coarse woody debris was gathered into piles. POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One of two randomized, replicated, controlled studies in Canada found higher counts of San Bernardino long-tailed voles where coarse woody debris was gathered into piles. The other study found higher small mammal abundance at one of three plots where debris was gathered into piles. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2653https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2653Sat, 13 Jun 2020 18:38:30 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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