Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Leave cut vegetation in field to provide cover One study evaluated the effects on mammals of leaving cut vegetation in field to provide cover. This study was in the USA KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that increasing cover, by adding cut vegetation (hay), did not increase rodent abundance. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2401https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2401Thu, 28 May 2020 11:01:45 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Establish long-term cover on erodible cropland One study evaluated the effects on mammals of establishing long-term cover on erodible cropland. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A replicated, site comparison study in the USA, found that establishing long-term cover on erodible cropland did not increase the abundance of eastern cottontails. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2402https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2402Thu, 28 May 2020 11:16:49 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use traditional breeds of livestock One study evaluated the effects of using traditional breeds of livestock on wild mammals. This study was carried out in four European countries. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A replicated, randomized, controlled study in Europe found that European hares did not use areas grazed by traditional livestock breeds more than they used areas grazed by commercial breeds. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2411https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2411Fri, 29 May 2020 13:25:23 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Relocate local pastoralist communities to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects on mammals of relocating local pastoralists to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in India. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A study in India found that after most pastoralists were relocated outside of an area, Asiatic lion numbers increased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2413https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2413Fri, 29 May 2020 15:34:18 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Train and support local staff to help reduce persecution of mammals One study evaluated the effects of training and supporting local staff to help reduce persecution of mammals. This study was in Kenya. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A replicated, before-and-after study in Kenya found that employing local tribesmen to dissuade pastoralists from killing lions and to assist with livestock protection measures, alongside compensating for livestock killed by lions, reduced lion killings by pastoralists. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2425https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2425Mon, 01 Jun 2020 14:45:20 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Publish data on ranger performance to motivate increased anti-poacher efforts One study evaluated the effects on poaching incidents of publishing data on ranger performance to motivate increased anti-poacher efforts. This study was in Ghana. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A replicated, before-and-after, site comparison study in Ghana found that when data were publishing on staff performance, poaching incidents decreased on these sites and on sites from which performance data were not published. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human behaviour change (1 study): A replicated, before-and-after, site comparison study in Ghana found that publishing data on staff performance lead to an increase in anti-poaching patrols. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2426https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2426Mon, 01 Jun 2020 14:50:54 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Dispose of livestock carcasses to deter predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of disposing of livestock carcasses to deter predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): One site comparison study in the USA found that burying or removing sheep carcasses reduced predation on livestock by coyotes, but burning carcasses did not alter livestock predation rates. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2432https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2432Tue, 02 Jun 2020 08:05:12 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Keep livestock in enclosures to reduce predation by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of keeping livestock in enclosures to reduce predation by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in Portugal. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated study in Portugal found fewer wolf attacks on cattle on farms where cattle were confined for at least some of the time compared to those with free-ranging cattle. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2438https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2438Tue, 02 Jun 2020 09:42:50 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Install automatically closing gates at field entrances to prevent mammals entering to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects on mammal movements of installing automatically closing gates at field entrances to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in USA. KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled study, in the USA found that vehicle-activated bump gates prevented white-tailed deer from entering enclosures. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2441https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2441Tue, 02 Jun 2020 10:22:55 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Deter predation of livestock by mammals by having people close by to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of deterring predation of livestock by mammals by having people close by to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in Kenya. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): One study in Kenya recorded fewer attacks by predators on livestock in bomas when people were also present but the presence of people did not reduce predator attacks on grazing herds. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2444https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2444Tue, 02 Jun 2020 10:28:51 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Deter predation of livestock by herding livestock using adults instead of children to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects on predatory mammal activities of herding livestock using adults instead of children to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in Cameroon. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A site comparison study in Cameroon found that using adults to herd livestock reduced losses through predation relative to that of livestock herded solely by children. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2445https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2445Tue, 02 Jun 2020 10:32:59 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Fit livestock with protective collars to reduce risk of predation by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of fitting livestock with protective collars to reduce human-wildlife conflict on rates of livestock killings by predators. This study was in South Africa. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, before-and-after study in South Africa found that livestock protection collars reduced predation on livestock by carnivores. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2448https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2448Tue, 02 Jun 2020 10:46:47 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use noise aversive conditioning to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of using noise aversive conditioning to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled study in USA found that noise aversive conditioning reduced bait consumption by white-tailed deer. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2461https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2461Tue, 02 Jun 2020 11:44:11 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use tranquilizers to reduce stress during translocation One study evaluated the effects on mammals of using tranquilizers to reduce stress during translocation. This study was in France. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A controlled study in France found that using tranquilizers to reduce stress during translocation did not increase post-release survival of European rabbits. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2465https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2465Wed, 03 Jun 2020 09:04:15 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Airborne translocation of mammals using parachutes One study evaluated the effects of airborne translocation of mammals using parachutes. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A study in the USA found that at least some North American beavers translocated using parachutes established territories and survived over one year after release. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2466https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2466Wed, 03 Jun 2020 09:31:50 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Clone rare species One study evaluated the effects of cloning rare species. This study was in Iran. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): A controlled study in Iran found that immature eggs of domestic sheep have potential to be used for cloning of Esfahan mouflon. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2474https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2474Thu, 04 Jun 2020 09:34:41 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove burnt trees and branches after wildfire One study evaluated the effects on mammals of removing burnt trees and branches after wildfire. This study was in Spain. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A replicated, randomized, controlled study in Spain found that removing burned trees and branches after wildfire did not increase European wild rabbit numbers compared to removing burned trees but leaving branches in place. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2478https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2478Thu, 04 Jun 2020 11:07:35 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use ultrasonic noises to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of using ultrasonic noises to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled, paired sites study in Australia found that ultrasonic devices did not repel eastern gray kangaroos. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2479https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2479Thu, 04 Jun 2020 11:15:07 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove mid-storey vegetation in forest One study evaluated the effects on mammals of removing mid-storey vegetation in forest. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): A randomized, replicated, controlled study in the USA found that after removing mid-storey vegetation, mammal species richness increased. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A randomized, replicated, controlled study in the USA found that after removing mid-storey vegetation, mammal abundance increased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2480https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2480Thu, 04 Jun 2020 11:15:08 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use drones to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects on mammals of using drones to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in Tanzania. KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated study in Tanzania found that drones repelled African savanna elephants from crops within one minute. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2481https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2481Thu, 04 Jun 2020 11:25:39 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use negative stimuli to deter consumption of livestock feed by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects of using negative stimuli to deter consumption of livestock feed by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in the USA. KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled study in the USA found that white-tailed deer presence at cattle feeders was usually reduced by a device that produced a negative stimulus. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2486https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2486Thu, 04 Jun 2020 13:03:54 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Provide supplementary food after fire One study evaluated the effects on mammals of providing supplementary food after fire. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A replicated, randomized, controlled study in the USA found that supplementary feeding did not increase survival of hispid cotton rats following prescribed fire. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2494https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2494Thu, 04 Jun 2020 15:06:37 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove/control non-native invertebrates One study evaluated the effects on mammals of removing or controlling non-native invertebrates. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A replicated, controlled, before-and-after study the USA found that after the control of red imported fire ants, capture rates of northern pygmy mice increased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2501https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2501Thu, 04 Jun 2020 15:42:11 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use repellents to reduce cable gnawing One study evaluated the effects of using repellents to reduce cable gnawing. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A randomized, replicated, controlled study in the USA found that repellents only deterred cable gnawing by northern pocket gophers when encased in shrink-tubing. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2502https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2502Thu, 04 Jun 2020 15:42:16 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use target species scent to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict One study evaluated the effects on mammals of using target species scent to deter crop damage to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in South Africa. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled study in South Africa found that African elephants were not deterred from feeding by the presence of secretions from elephant temporal glands. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2506https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2506Thu, 04 Jun 2020 16:31:30 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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