Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Modify grazing regime: Grassland & shrubland Four studies evaluated the effects of modifying grazing regimes in grassland and shrubland on reptile populations. Three studies were in the USA and one was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (3 studies): One replicated site comparison study in the USA found that sites with different grazing intensities had similar reptile diversity. One replicated, site-comparison, paired sites study in Australia found no clear effects of modifying grazing intensities on reptile species richness. One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that areas that were lightly grazed or unmanaged had lower reptile species richness than areas that were heavily grazed in combination with burning. POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One of two replicated studies (including one site comparison, paired sites study) in the USA and Australia found that plots with lighter grazing had higher lizard abundance than those with heavier grazing in four of five vegetation types. The other study found that the abundance of individual reptile species or species groups remained similar at different grazing intensities. Survival (1 study): One site comparison study in the USA found that survival of Texas horned lizards was higher in moderately grazed than heavily grazed sites. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that light grazing or heavy grazing and burning had mixed effects on the reptile species that used those areas. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3490https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3490Mon, 06 Dec 2021 11:22:16 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Regulate wildlife harvesting Four studies evaluated the effects of regulating wildlife harvesting on reptile populations. One study was in each of Costa Rica, Australia, Indonesia and Japan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One before-and-after study in Australia found that following legal protection and harvest regulations, the density of saltwater crocodile populations increased. One before-and-after study in Japan found that following regulation of the green turtle harvest in combination with allowing harvested turtles to lay eggs prior to being killed, the number of nesting females tended to be higher. Reproductive success (1 study): One before-and-after study in Japan found that following regulation of the green turtle harvest in combination with allowing harvested turtles to lay eggs prior to being killed, the number of hatchlings produced in natural nests tended to be higher. Condition (1 study): One before-and-after study in Australia found that following legal protection and harvest regulations, the average size of crocodiles increased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (2 STUDIES) Human behaviour change (2 studies): One replicated study in Costa Rica found that in an area with a legalized turtle egg harvest run by a community cooperative, a majority of people reported a willingness to do more to protect sea turtles. One study in Indonesia reported that quotas to regulate wildlife harvesting did not limit the number of individuals of three reptile species that were harvested and exported. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3538https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3538Tue, 07 Dec 2021 16:33:38 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Install exclusion devices on fishing gear: Sea turtles Three studies evaluated the effects of installing exclusion devices on fishing gear on sea turtle populations. One study was in the Gulf of Mexico (USA), one was in the Mid-Atlantic (USA) and one was off the coast of Western Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): One replicated, before-and-after study in the Gulf of Mexico found that when exclusion grids with escape holes were used in a shrimp trawl fishery there were fewer lethal strandings of loggerhead turtles compared to when grids were not used. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One controlled study in the Mid-Atlantic found that when exclusion devices were used on scallop dredges there were fewer interactions with sea turtles than when no devices were used. OTHER (1 STUDY) Unwanted catch (1 study): One replicated study off the coast of Western Australia found that exclusion grids with escape hatches prevented sea turtles entering trawl nets. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3584https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3584Wed, 08 Dec 2021 15:30:20 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Install escape devices on fishing gear: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles Three studies evaluated the effects of installing escape devices on fishing gear on tortoise, terrapin, side-necked & softshell turtle populations. One study was in each of Australia, the USA and Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in the USA found that a lower percentage of turtles died in hoop nets with escape devices than in unmodified nets. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (3 STUDIES) Unwanted catch (3 Studies): One replicated, controlled study in Australia found that most short-necked turtles escaped from a carp trap with an escape ring. One replicated, randomized, controlled, paired study in the USA found that hoop nets with escape devices caught fewer turtles than unmodified nets. One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in Canada found that more painted turtles escaped from fyke nets with an escape device than from unmodified nets after being placed in the net. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3602https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3602Thu, 09 Dec 2021 09:55:00 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Install escape devices on fishing gear: Snakes & lizards Three studies evaluated the effects of installing escape devices on fishing gear on snake and lizard populations. All three studies were in the Gulf of Carpentaria (Australia). COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (3 STUDIES) Unwanted catch (3 Studies): One of two paired, controlled studies (including one randomized and one replicated study) in the Gulf of Carpentaria found that trawl nets with escape devices caught a similar number of sea snakes compared to unmodified nets. The other study found that trawl nets with an escape device caught fewer sea snakes compared to unmodified nets. One replicated, paired, controlled study in the Gulf of Carpentaria found that the placement of escape devices trawl nets affected the number of sea snakes caught compared to unmodified nets. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3603https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3603Thu, 09 Dec 2021 10:08:51 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Release accidentally caught (‘bycatch’) reptiles Three studies evaluated the effects on reptile populations of releasing accidentally caught reptiles. One study was in each of the Caribbean Sea, Costa Rica and the Republic of Korea. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Survival (2 studies): One replicated study in the Caribbean Sea found that from a released group of green turtles that included some accidentally caught and some head-started individuals, some survived for at least several months in the wild. One replicated study in the Republic of Korea found that green turtles caught in pound nets all survived for at least two weeks to a year after release. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Behaviour change (1 study): One controlled study off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica found that the behaviour of longline-caught sea turtles following release was broadly similar to free-swimming turtles. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3624https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3624Thu, 09 Dec 2021 13:37:44 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change the colour (spectral composition) of lighting Three studies evaluated the effects of changing the colour (spectral composition) of lighting on reptile populations. Two studies were in the USA and one was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Behaviour change (3 studies): Two replicated, controlled studies (including one randomized study) in the USA and Australia found that yellow-tinted incandescent lighting did not affect the seaward orientation of loggerhead turtle hatchlings, whereas four other types of lighting did, and that hatchlings were disoriented in fewer trials by red lighting than by amber lighting. One replicated, controlled study in the USA found in laboratory trials that filtering out high wavelengths did not prevent loggerhead or green turtles crawling towards light sources. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3628https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3628Thu, 09 Dec 2021 13:43:25 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use selective logging Three studies evaluated the effects of using selective logging in forests on reptile populations. One study was in each of Brazil, the USA and Mexico. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Mexico found that areas with low intensity selective logging tended to have similar reptile species richness compared to areas with high intensity selective logging. POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One of two replicated, randomized, controlled studies (including one before-and-after study) in Brazil and the USA found that selective logging intensity had mixed effects on the abundance of three lizard species. The other study found that areas with selective logging had similar reptile abundance compared to areas with combined clearcutting and thinning. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3637https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3637Thu, 09 Dec 2021 14:57:16 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or maintain beaches (‘beach nourishment’) Three studies evaluated the effects of restoring or maintaining beaches on reptile populations. All three studies were in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that gopher tortoise densities were higher and numbers occupying burrows similar on constructed sand dunes compared to natural dunes. Reproductive success (2 studies): Two controlled, before-and-after studies in the USA found that one year after adding sand to beaches, nesting activity decreased more for loggerhead turtles, and loggerhead and green turtles compared to on unmodified beaches. Two years after nourishment, both studies found that loggerhead nesting activity had increased, and in one study nesting had returned to pre-nourishment levels. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that burrows on a constructed dune were discovered by gopher tortoises after three months. Behaviour change (1 study): One controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that one year after adding sand to beaches, loggerhead turtles made more non-nesting crawls than on unmodified beaches, but the difference was smaller two years after nourishment. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3669https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3669Fri, 10 Dec 2021 11:30:32 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove or control predators using lethal controls: Sea turtles Four studies evaluated the effects of removing or controlling predators using lethal controls on sea turtle populations. All four studies were in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Reproductive success (4 studies): Two before-and-after studies (including one controlled study) in the USA found that on islands where raccoons and feral pigs or only feral pigs were eradicated, fewer loggerhead and loggerhead and green turtle nests were predated than before predator control began. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the USA found that controlling raccoons on short sections of a beach resulted in similar predation of loggerhead turtle nests compared to in sections of the beach with no control. One before-and-after study in the USA found that disruptions to a programme controlling raccoons and armadillos resulted in more predation of loggerhead, leatherback and green turtle nests. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3671https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3671Fri, 10 Dec 2021 11:54:30 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Protect nests and nesting sites from predation using chemical deterrents Four studies evaluated the effects of protecting nests and nesting sites from predation using chemical deterrents on reptile populations. Two studies were in the USA and one was in each of Spain and Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Reproductive success (4 studies): Three of four controlled studies (including three replicated studies) in Spain, the USA and Australia found that a similar number of artificial Hermann’s tortoise nests, diamondback terrapin nests and loggerhead turtle nests that had chemical deterrents, pepper powder or chilli powder applied were predated compared to nests with no deterrent. The other study found that fewer loggerhead turtle nets that had habanero pepper powder applied to the surface were predated than nests with no pepper powder, or nest with pepper powder below the surface. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3694https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3694Fri, 10 Dec 2021 18:08:18 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove or control non-native/invasive plants Four studies evaluated the effects of removing or controlling non-native/invasive plants on reptile populations. Two studies were in Australia and one was in each of South Africa and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled, before-and-after study in Australia found that areas where invasive Bitou bush were sprayed with herbicide had similar reptile species richness compared to unsprayed areas. POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): Two of three replicated, controlled studies (including two randomized and two before-and-after studies) in the USA and Australia found that areas where invasive Bitou bush or para grass were controlled had a similar abundance of reptiles and combined reptiles and amphibians compared to areas with no control. One study also found that the abundance of delicate skinks was lower in areas with invasive control compared to unmanaged areas. The other study found that removing invasive non-native Sahara mustard had mixed effects on the abundance of Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizards and flat-tailed horned lizards. Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in South Africa found that in areas where an invasive plant was removed, nesting activity by Nile crocodiles increased more than in places with no removal. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3697https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3697Fri, 10 Dec 2021 18:27:22 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Manage vegetation by hand (selective weeding) Four studies evaluated the effects of managing vegetation by hand on reptile populations. Two studies were in the USA, one was in South Africa and one was in the US Virgin Islands. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, paired sites, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that removing invasive, non-native Sahara mustard by hand had mixed effects on the abundance of two lizard species. Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the US Virgin Islands found that in areas where native beach morning glory was removed by hand, leatherback turtle nests had similar hatching and emergence success compared to areas where no removal took place. Survival (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the US Virgin Islands found that in areas where native beach morning glory was removed by hand, fewer leatherback turtle hatchlings became entangled in vegetation compared to areas where no removal took place. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in South Africa found that removing an invasive plant by hand resulted in more sites being used for nesting by Nile crocodiles compared to areas with no removal. One randomized study in the USA found that weeded or mown areas were used less frequently for nesting by Blanding’s turtles than tilled areas. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3714https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3714Mon, 13 Dec 2021 14:53:37 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Translocate adult or juvenile reptiles: Tuatara Four studies evaluated the effects of translocating tuatara on their populations. Three studies were in New Zealand and one was global. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One global review reported that 15 of 47 reptile translocations resulted in stable or growing populations (review included both wild-caught and captive bred animals). One study in New Zealand found that nine years after a translocation of 32 tuatara to an island where they had previously gone extinct, there was a population of 50 individuals. Reproductive success (2 studies): One of two studies (including one controlled study) in New Zealand reported successful reproduction in one population of translocated tuatara. The other study reported no breeding during the six years following translocation. Survival (2 studies): Two studies (including one controlled study) in New Zealand reported that 61–73% of translocated tuatara were recaptured over a six year period or survived for 9–12 month following release. Condition (1 study): One controlled study in New Zealand found that translocated adult tuatara increased their body weight by 41% following release. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3723https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3723Mon, 13 Dec 2021 17:16:28 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create or restore ponds Four studies evaluated the effects of creating or restoring ponds on reptile populations. Two studies were in the USA and one was in each of Austria and China. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (4 STUDIES) Use (4 studies): Four studies (including one replicated and one before-and-after study) in Austria, the USA and China reported that following the creation of ponds, in one case 30–60 years after pond creation, or restoration of a river island that included creation of ponds grass snakes and sand lizards were found on the island, and ponds were occupied by mangrove salt marsh snakaes, common snapping turtles and midland painted turtles and Chinese alligators. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3730https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3730Tue, 14 Dec 2021 09:22:24 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore island ecosystems Three studies evaluated the effects of restoring island ecosystems on reptile populations. One study was in each of the Seychelles, the USA and the US Virgin Islands. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Occupancy/range (1 study): One study in the US Virgin Islands found that following translocation to a restored island, St. Croix ground lizards expanded their range during the fifth to seventh year after release. Reproductive success (2 studies): One study in the Seychelles found that following a range of interventions carried out to restore an island ecosystem, the number of hawksbill and green turtle nests increased. One replicated study in the USA found that during and after an island was rebuilt, diamondback terrapins continued to nest on the island. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3736https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3736Tue, 14 Dec 2021 10:00:08 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create or restore grasslands Four studies evaluated the effects of creating or restoring grasslands on reptile populations. One study was in each of South Africa, China, Australia and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (2 studies): One replicated, controlled study in Mongolia found that areas of restored grassland had similar species richness compared to unrestored areas. One replicated, site comparison study in South Africa found that an area of restored grassland had lower species richness than natural grassland in three of four comparisons. POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): One of two replicated, controlled studies (including one paired study) in Mongolia and the USA found that areas of restored grassland had higher lizard abundance than unrestored areas. The other study found that areas of restored grassland had fewer snakes than unrestored areas. One replicated, site comparison study in South Africa found that an area of restored grassland had a similar abundance of reptiles compared to two areas of natural grassland. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled study in Australia found that some areas of restored grassland and rocky outcrops were recolonized by pink-tailed worm-lizards. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3737https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3737Tue, 14 Dec 2021 10:05:24 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Rehabilitate and release injured or accidentally caught individuals: Sea turtles Four studies evaluated the effects of rehabilitating and releasing injured or accidentally caught sea turtles on their populations. Two studies were in the USA and one was in each of the Philippines and the western Mediterranean. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Survival (4 studies): One study in the Philippines and one controlled study in the western Mediterranean found that of 79 rehabilitated sea turtles two were found dead and two alive within 1–5 months of release, and six rehabilitated loggerhead turtles survived for at least five months following release. Two studies in the USA found that around one third of stranded sea turtles and 96% of sea turtles caught in fishing gear could be rehabilitated and released. One study also found that the chance of surviving the rehabilitation process varied with species. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Behaviour change (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in the western Mediterranean found that six rehabilitated loggerhead turtles showed similar behaviour to wild caught turtles across 46 of 54 comparisons. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3740https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3740Tue, 14 Dec 2021 10:23:55 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Rehabilitate and release injured or accidentally caught individuals: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles Four studies evaluated the effects of rehabilitating and releasing injured or accidentally caught tortoises, terrapins, side-necked and softshell turtles on their populations. Two studies were in France and one was in each of South Africa and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Reproductive success (1 study): One controlled study in France found that some rehabilitated Hermann’s tortoises were observed mating with resident tortoises following release. Survival (4 studies): One controlled, before-and-after study in France found that survival of rehabilitated and released Hermann’s tortoises was similar compared to wild tortoises over a two-year period. Three studies (including two replicated studies) in South Africa, France and the USA found that Babcock’s leopard tortoises, Herman’s tortoises and ornate box turtles released following rehabilitation survived for varying durations during monitoring periods that ranged from three months to 25 months or until the end of the active season during the year of release. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Behaviour change (2 studies): One controlled study in France found that 12 rehabilitated Herman’s tortoises remained within 2 km of their release site over a three-month period. This study also found that daily movement of rehabilitated and released tortoises was similar to residents. One controlled, before-and-after study in France found that rehabilitated tortoises released in autumn took longer to establish a home range than those released in spring. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3741https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3741Tue, 14 Dec 2021 10:34:25 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Snakes – Elapids Four studies evaluated the effects of breeding elapid snakes in captivity. Three studies were in Australia and one was in India. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Reproductive success (4 studies): Three studies in Australia and India reported that 1–4 females elapid snakes produced clutches of eggs in captivity, with 26–93% hatching successfully. One study in Australia reported that two generations of death adders produced litters of 17–25 young in captivity, though 20 were still born. Survival (2 studies): Two studies in Australia and India reported that two western brown hatchlings survived 2–3 years and 87% of king cobra hatchlings survived one year in captivity. Condition (1 study): One study in Australia reported that eight of 15 captive-bred western brown snake hatchlings lacked one or both eyes. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Offspring sex ratio (1 study): One study in Australia reported that 55% of captive-bred Australian death adders were female. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3750https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3750Tue, 14 Dec 2021 13:27:14 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratio: Snakes & lizards Four studies evaluated the effects of altering incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratios on snake and lizard populations. Two studies were in each of the USA and China. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Reproductive success (3 studies): Two replicated studies (including one randomized study) in China and the USA found that toad-headed agama hatching success was lowest at the highest incubation temperature tested and southern alligator lizard hatching success was highest at intermediate temperatures.One randomized study in the USA found that survival of garter snake offspring was highest when females were maintained at intermediate temperatures. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (4 STUDIES): Offspring sex ratio (4 studies): Three replicated studies (including two randomized studies) in China and the USA found that hatchling sex ratio of stripe-tailed ratsnakes, toad-headed agamas and southern alligator lizard was not affected by incubation temperature. One randomized study in the USA found that sex ratio of live garter snake offspring was not affected by the temperature females were maintained at. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3763https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3763Tue, 14 Dec 2021 16:36:15 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Release captive-bred reptiles into the wild: Crocodilians Four studies evaluated the effects of releasing captive-bred crocodilians into the wild. Two studies were in China, one was in South Africa and one was a global review. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One global review found that when using recruitment to the adult population as a measure of success, 32% of reptile translocations/releases (releases of captive individuals were 7% of total projects) were successful. One study in South Africa reported that following releases of captive-bred Nile crocodiles, wild populations increased in size over 30 years, but then declined in the subsequent 15 years. Reproduction (2 studies): Two studies (one replicated) in China reported that breeding or nesting was observed within four years of releasing captive-bred Chinese alligators. Survival (1 study): One study in China reported that of nine captive-bred Chinese alligators, three survived for nine years and six survived for at least one year following release. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated study in China reported that after 10 years of releases of captive bred Chinese alligators to an area that had historically been occupied, 56% of constructed ponds were occupied. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3772https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3772Wed, 15 Dec 2021 11:53:57 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Relocate nests/eggs to a nearby natural setting (not including hatcheries): Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles Four studies evaluated the effects of relocating nests/eggs to a nearby natural setting on tortoise, terrapin, side-necked & softshell turtle One study was in each of Venezuela, Columbia, Canada and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Reproductive success (4 studies): Two of four replicated, controlled studies in Venezuela, Columbia, Canada and the USA found that relocated Arrau turtle and Magdalena river turtle nests had similar hatching success compared to natural nests. One of the studies found that painted turtle and snapping turtle nests relocated to artificial nest mounds had higher hatching success than natural nests. The other study found that relocating diamondback terrapin nests to artificial nest mounds had mixed effects on hatching success compared to natural nests. Survival (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Venezuela found that Arrau turtle hatchlings from relocated nests had lower survival during their first year compared to hatchlings from natural nests. Condition (2 studies): One replicated, controlled study in Venezuela found that Arrau turtle hatchlings from relocated nests had more physical abnormalities compared to hatchlings from natural nests. One replicated, controlled study in Columbia found that a similar number of eggs were infested by invertebrates and fungi in relocated and natural nests. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3782https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3782Wed, 15 Dec 2021 15:14:03 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Provide supplementary food or water Four studies evaluated the effects of providing supplementary food or water on reptile populations. Two studies were in the USA and one was in each of Indonesia and Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Survival (2 studies): One replicated, controlled study in the USA found that translocated desert tortoises given supplementary water had similar survival over two years compared to those given no supplementary water. Reproduction (1 study): One randomized, controlled study in the USA found that more Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes provided with supplementary food reproduced compared snakes that were not fed. Condition (2 studies): Two controlled studies (including one randomized and one replicated study) in the USA found that Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes or translocated desert tortoises that were given supplementary food or water grew more than those that were not supplemented. BEHAVIOUR (4 STUDIES) Use (1 studies): One controlled, before-and-after study in Indonesia found that areas where supplementary food was provided were used more frequently by Komodo dragons than other parts of the island. Behaviour change (3 studies): One of two controlled studies (including one replicated, before-and-after study) in the USA and Australia found that that Pygmy bluetongue lizards translocated into enclosures and given supplementary food showed differences in three behaviour measures compared to lizards given no food. The other study found that fed and unfed Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes showed similar behaviours across four measures. One replicated, controlled study in the USA found that translocated desert tortoises given supplementary water moved longer distances than those given no supplementary water. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3786https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3786Wed, 15 Dec 2021 16:21:31 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Relocate nests/eggs for artificial incubation: Snakes Four studies evaluated the effects of relocating nests/eggs for artificial incubation on snake populations. Two studies were in Australia and one was in each of Japan and China. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Reproductive success (4 studies): Two studies in Australia reported that 87% of carpet python eggs and 83% of brown tree snake eggs hatched successfully following artificial incubation. One study also reported that zero of 10 artificially incubated Oenpelli python eggs hatched. One study in Japan reported that 265 habu eggs hatched successfully following artificial incubation. One replicated, randomized study in China found that hatching success of artificially incubated stripe-tailed ratsnake eggs was lowest at the coolest and warmest temperatures tested. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Offspring sex ratio (1 study): One study in Japan reported that artificially incubated habu eggs produced offspring with an even sex ratio. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3797https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3797Wed, 15 Dec 2021 18:19:49 +0000
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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