Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Protect brownfield or ex-industrial sites in urban areas One study evaluated the effects of protecting brownfield or ex-industrial sites in urban areas. This study was in the UK. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One study in the UK reported that an ex-industrial site that was protected was occupied by up to four species of reptiles. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3478https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3478Fri, 03 Dec 2021 11:43:50 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures   One study evaluated the effects of paying farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures on reptiles. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Australia found that sites managed under agri-environment schemes had similar reptile species richness compared to sites that were managed purely for livestock production or areas of unmanaged woodland. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Australia found that sites managed under agri-environment schemes had similar reptile abundances compared to sites that were managed purely for livestock production or areas of unmanaged woodland. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3486https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3486Fri, 03 Dec 2021 13:08:13 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Regulate temperature of water discharged from power plants One study evaluated the effects of regulating temperature of water discharged from power plants. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One study in the USA reported that power plant water cooling canals were occupied by a population of American crocodiles. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3495https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3495Mon, 06 Dec 2021 12:12:00 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Modify grazing regime: Wetland One study evaluated the effects of managing grazing regimes in wetlands on reptile populations. This study was in France. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One controlled before-and-after study in France found that moderate density autumn–winter grazing and autumn–spring marsh flooding resulted in higher abundance of European pond turtles than high density spring–summer grazing and winter–spring marsh flooding or low year-round grazing and flooding. Condition (1 study): One controlled before-and-after study in France found that high-density spring–summer grazing resulted in fewer incidences of trampling compared to moderate-density autumn–winter grazing or low-density year-round grazing. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3496https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3496Mon, 06 Dec 2021 12:17:07 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use road closures One study evaluated the effects of using road closures on reptile populations. This study was in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated study in Canada found that closed roads were not used more by Blanding’s turtles than unclosed roads. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3503https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3503Mon, 06 Dec 2021 17:53:46 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create fire breaks One study evaluated the effects of creating fire breaks on reptile populations. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in Australia found that in areas with fire suppression measures combined with fences to exclude predators, reptile abundance increased over time. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3658https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3658Fri, 10 Dec 2021 10:45:04 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Regulate water levels One study evaluated the effects of regulating water levels on reptile populations. This study was in France. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One controlled, before-and-after study in France found that autumn–spring marsh flooding with moderate levels of grazing in autumn–winter led to higher numbers of European pond turtles than winter–spring flooding with high levels of grazing in spring–summer. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3660https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3660Fri, 10 Dec 2021 10:51:46 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter water flow rates One study evaluated the effects of altering water flow rates on reptile populations. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One before-and-after study in Australia found that releasing a large flow of water into a wetland system had mixed effects on relative abundance of eastern long-necked turtles and the number of turtles caught. Condition (1 study): One before-and-after study in Australia found that after releasing a large flow of water into a wetland system, body condition of eastern long-necked turtles improved. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3666https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3666Fri, 10 Dec 2021 11:17:59 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Maintain dams or water impoundments One study evaluated the effects of maintaining dams or water impoundments on reptile populations. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, before-and-after study in the USA found that after sediment removal, or dam maintenance along with sediment removal, one water impoundment was still used by Sonoran mud turtles and a second was not used. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3667https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3667Fri, 10 Dec 2021 11:22:04 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Modify dams or water impoundments to enable wildlife movements One study evaluated the effects on reptile populations of modifying dams or water impoundments to enable wildlife movements. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One study in the USA found that an eel ladder was used by common watersnakes in five of eight years. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3668https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3668Fri, 10 Dec 2021 11:24:28 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove or control predators using lethal controls: Tuatara One study evaluated the effects of removing or controlling predators using lethal controls on tuatara populations. This study was in New Zealand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in New Zealand found that after eradicating Pacific rats the abundance of tuatara was higher on islands where rats were eradicated than on islands where some rats remained, and that the percentage of total tuatara that were juveniles increased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3675https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3675Fri, 10 Dec 2021 13:44:19 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Protect nests and nesting sites from predation using visual deterrents One study evaluated the effects of protecting nests and nesting sites from predation using visual deterrents on reptile populations. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Australia found that a similar number of loggerhead turtle nests marked with red flags were predated compared to those marked only with wooden stakes. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3692https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3692Fri, 10 Dec 2021 17:37:45 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Protect nests and nesting sites from predation by creating new nesting sites One study evaluated the effects of protecting nests and nesting sites from predation by creating new nesting sites on reptile populations. This study was in Spain. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Spain found that predation rate of artificial Hermann’s tortoise nests in newly created nesting sites was similar to the predation rate in natural nesting sites. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3693https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3693Fri, 10 Dec 2021 17:39:17 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Protect nests and nesting sites from predation using conditioned taste aversion One study evaluated the effects of protecting nests and nesting sites from predation using conditioned taste aversion on reptile populations. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that a similar number of loggerhead turtle nests were predated in areas of the beach where artificial nests containing unpalatable eggs were deployed (to condition taste aversion) compared to areas with no artificial nests with unpalatable eggs. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3695https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3695Fri, 10 Dec 2021 18:18:32 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Control ectoparasites in wild reptile populations One study evaluated the effects on reptile populations of controlling ectoparasites in wild reptile populations. This study was in New Zealand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One controlled study in New Zealand found that McCann’s skinks treated for mites had more successful pregnancies and produced more viable offspring than untreated skinks. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3704https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3704Fri, 10 Dec 2021 19:06:39 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Develop/implement species recovery plans One study evaluated the effects of developing/implementing species recovery plans on reptile populations. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Conservation status (1 study): One controlled, before-and-after, paired study in Australia found that the chance of a species’ conservation status improving or being stable was similar for those with a recovery plan (including three reptile species) and those without a plan (including three reptile species). Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3707https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3707Mon, 13 Dec 2021 11:13:35 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Release reptiles into burrows One study evaluated the effects of releasing reptiles into burrows on their populations. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): One replicated study in the USA found that both releasing translocated gopher tortoises into abandoned or artificial burrows or releasing without burrows had low success, but providing burrows inside release pens resulted in more successful translocations. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3725https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3725Mon, 13 Dec 2021 17:41:23 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Translocate reptiles away from threats: Crocodilians One study evaluated the effects of translocating crocodilians away from threats on their populations. This study was global. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One global review found that when using recruitment to the adult population as a measure of success, mitigation translocations (both away from threats and of problem reptiles) failed more often than those carried out for conservation or research purposes. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3733https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3733Tue, 14 Dec 2021 09:49:40 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Translocate reptiles away from threats: Tuatara One study evaluated the effects of translocating tuatara away from threats on their populations. This study was global. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One global review found that when using recruitment to the adult population as a measure of success, mitigation translocations (both away from threats and of problem reptiles) failed more often than those carried out for conservation or research purposes. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3734https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3734Tue, 14 Dec 2021 09:53:44 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create or restore savannas One study evaluated the effects of creating or restoring savannas on reptile populations. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One before-and-after study in Australia found that reptile species richness was higher following restoration of savanna-like habitat on a golf course. POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3739https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3739Tue, 14 Dec 2021 10:15:59 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Rehabilitate and release injured or accidentally caught individuals: Crocodilians One study evaluated the effects of rehabilitating and releasing injured or accidentally caught crocodilians on their populations. This study was in India. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One study in India found that found that breeding occurred in a rehabilitated and released population of mugger crocodiles four years after the first release. Survival (1 study): One study in India found that seven of eight rehabilitated and released mugger crocodiles survived for at least 1–4 years after release. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3743https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3743Tue, 14 Dec 2021 10:48:01 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create or restore shrubland One study evaluated the effects of creating or restoring shrubland on reptile populations. This study was in Mexico. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Mexico found that areas of restored shrubland had similar reptile and amphibian species richness compared to areas that were not restored. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Mexico found that areas of restored shrubland had a higher abundance of lizards than areas that were not restored. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3751https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3751Tue, 14 Dec 2021 13:28:55 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore beaches One study evaluated the effects of restoring beaches on reptile populations. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that removing beach debris from one section of beach did not increase nesting success in that section. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that after the removal of beach debris from one of three beach sections, a higher percentage of both the total nests laid and failed nesting attempts occurred in that section. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3752https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3752Tue, 14 Dec 2021 13:30:25 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Tuatara One study evaluated the effects of breeding tuatara in captivity. This study was in New Zealand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated study in New Zealand reported that hatching success of eggs laid in captivity by tuatara was around 50%. The study also found that the first clutches were laid 2–8 years after tuatara were brought into captivity. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3758https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3758Tue, 14 Dec 2021 15:42:24 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use artificial insemination One study evaluated the effects of using artificial insemination on reptile populations. This study was in New Zealand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated study in New Zealand found that none of 10 artificially inseminated McCann’s skinks gave birth within a year of insemination, though around five were gravid after nine months. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3759https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3759Tue, 14 Dec 2021 15:47:24 +0000
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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