Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Manage hedgerows to benefit wildlife (includes no spray, gap-filling and laying) Ten studies from Switzerland and the UK (three replicated and controlled studies of which one was randomized) found that managing hedges for wildlife resulted in increased berry yields, species diversity or richness of plants and invertebrates and diversity or abundance of farmland birds. Five studies from the UK (including one replicated, controlled and randomized study) found that hedge management did not affect plant species richness, numbers of bumblebee queens or farmland birds. Two replicated studies have shown mixed or adverse effects, with hedge management having mixed effects on invertebrates or leading to reduced hawthorn berry yield. A replicated site comparison in the UK found hedges cut every two years had more suitable nesting habitat for grey partridge than other management regimes. A replicated study from the UK found that hawthorn berry yield was reduced when management involved removing fruit-bearing wood.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F116https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F116Tue, 01 Nov 2011 20:32:06 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use organic rather than mineral fertilizers Seventeen studies (including three reviews) from Austria, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland and the UK looked at the effects of using organic rather than mineral fertilizers. Fourteen studies (including two reviews and seven replicated and controlled studies, of which four also randomized) from Austria, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland and the UK found that areas treated with organic rather than mineral fertilizers supported higher plant diversity and cover or species richness, increased earthworm abundance or diversity, biomass and density and increased abundance and/or species richness of some or all invertebrates investigated. A literature review found organic fertilizers without pesticides produced highest earthworm biomass. A small trial in Belgium found more predatory beetles on an arable field two years after organic fertilizer application than on a control plot. One randomized, replicated, controlled trial in the UK found that using organic rather than mineral fertilizers did not affect the abundance of three weed species. A replicated study from Ireland found that the application of farmyard manure had no long-term effect on invertebrates, whilst two studies from the UK found the increase in arthropod predators and springtails was only seen at a local not a field scale. A review found one study from the UK reporting that heavy applications of slurry can be toxic to common earthworms. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F134https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F134Thu, 17 Nov 2011 21:20:02 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Undersow spring cereals, with clover for example A total of fifteen studies from the UK, Austria, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland (including four replicated, controlled and randomised studies and two reviews) looked at the effects of undersowing spring cereals on biodiversity. Eleven studies (including seven replicated trials, of which one controlled and three randomized and controlled, and one review) found that undersowing spring cereals benefited some birds, plants, insects, spiders and earthworms. These benefits to farmland wildlife included increases in barnacle goose abundance, densities of singing Eurasian skylark and nesting dunnock, arthropod abundance and species richness, and bumblebee, butterfly, earthworm, ground beetle, spider or springtail abundances. Five studies from Austria, Finland and the UK (including three replicated studies of which one was also controlled and randomized, and a review) found that undersowing spring cereals did not benefit invertebrates, plants, grey partridge population indicators, or nesting densities of two out of three farmland bird species. One replicated study from the UK found only one out of five bird species was found more frequently on undersown wheat stubbles than conventionally managed barley.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F136https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F136Fri, 18 Nov 2011 15:24:58 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Control mammalian predators on islands for seabirds We found 16 before-and-after studies, one paired sites study and one literature review from around the world, all describing positive seabird responses to the removal or control of mammalian predators (mainly rats Rattus spp. and feral cats Felis catus) from islands. Of these 18 studies, seven found either large population increases or recolonisations following predator eradication or control. Two of these found only partial population increases or recolonisations: a study from Alaska. Twelve studies found increases in reproductive success and survival or decreases in predation and mortality following predator control. In one case there was also a small population increase. Rats and mice Mus musculus were controlled in twelve studies, mostly examining burrow-nesting seabirds; cats in eight, mostly on ground or cliff-nesting seabirds; and other species in two.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F375https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F375Tue, 07 Aug 2012 15:57:05 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Reduce chemical inputs in grassland management A total of 16 studies (including five reviews) investigated the effects of reducing inputs in permanent grasslands. Six studies from the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK (including one review and four replicated studies of which one was also controlled and one a randomized and controlled before-and-after trial) found that stopping fertilizer inputs in permanent grassland resulted in an increase in plant species richness, reduced the rate of plant species loss and attracted a higher abundance or species richness of some or all invertebrates studied. One review from the Netherlands found that low fertilizer input grasslands favour common meadow bird species. One review found a study showing that densities of some invertebrates were higher in unfertilized plots compared with those receiving nitrogen inputs. Two replicated, controlled trials from the Czech Republic and the UK (one randomized) found that applying fertilizer to permanent grasslands reduced plant species richness or diversity and that the effects on plant communities were still apparent 16 years after the cessation of fertilizer application. Four studies from Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK (including two replicated trials of which one randomized and one controlled and a review) found that reducing fertilizer inputs on grassland had no clear or rapid effect on plant species richness. A review found no clear effect of reducing fertilizer inputs on the density of soil-dwelling invertebrates. One replicated study found that fertilizer treatment only affected seed production of a small number of meadow plants. One replicated study from the UK found lower invertebrate abundance on plots with reduced fertilizer inputs but the differences were not significant.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F694https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F694Sat, 01 Dec 2012 17:52:25 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Leave overwinter stubbles Eighteen studies (including four reviews and one systematic review) investigated the effects of overwinter stubbles on farmland wildlife. Thirteen studies from Finland, Switzerland and the UK (six replicated trials, including two site comparisons, four reviews and a systematic review) found evidence that leaving overwinter stubbles provides some benefits to plants, insects, spiders, mammals and farmland birds. These benefits include higher densities of farmland birds in winter, increased grey partridge productivity, and increased cirl bunting population size (in combination with several other conservation measures) and territory density. One replicated site comparison study from the UK found evidence that leaving overwinter stubbles had inconsistent or no effects on farmland bird numbers. Three studies found only certain bird species showed positive associations with overwinter stubbles. Two replicated studies (of which one also randomized and controlled) found that only Eurasian skylark or both Eurasian skylark and Eurasian linnet benefited, out of a total 23 and 12 farmland bird species tested respectively. One study found that only grey partridge and tree sparrow showed positive population responses to areas with overwinter stubbles. Two studies from the UK (one randomized, one replicated and controlled) found that different farmland bird species benefited from different stubble heights. One replicated site comparison found mixed effects between different stubble management options on seed-eating bird abundance.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F695https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F695Sun, 02 Dec 2012 12:01:18 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Convert to organic farmingThis synopsis includes experimental tests of organic farming only. Comparative studies of existing organic systems are not included. Parasitism and mortality (caused by natural enemies): One of five studies (three replicated, controlled tests and two also randomised) from Europe, North America, Asia and Australasia found that organic farming increased parasitism or natural enemy-induced mortality of pests. Two studies found mixed effects of organic farming and two randomised, replicated, controlled studies found no effect. Natural enemies: Eight of 12 studies (including six randomised, replicated, controlled tests) from Europe, North America Asia and Australasia found more natural enemies under organic farming, although seven of these found effects varied over time or between natural enemy species or groups and/or crops or management practices. Three studies (one randomised, replicated, controlled) found no or inconsistent effects on natural enemies and one study found a negative effect. Pests and diseases: One of eight studies (including five randomised, replicated, controlled tests) found that organic farming reduced pests or disease, but two studies found more pests. Three studies found mixed effects and two studies found no effect. Crop damage: One of seven studies (including five randomised, replicated, controlled tests) found less crop damage in organic fields but two studies found more. One study found a mixed response and three studies found no or inconsistent effects. Weed seed predation and weed abundance: One randomised, replicated, controlled study from the USA found mixed effects of organic farming on weed seed predation by natural enemies. Three randomised, replicated, controlled studies from the USA found more weeds in organically farmed fields, but in one of these studies this effect varied between crops and years. One study found no effect. Yield and profit: Six randomised, replicated, controlled studies measured yields and found one positive effect, one negative effect and one mixed effect, plus no or inconsistent effects in three studies. One study found net profit increased if produce received a premium, but otherwise profit decreased. Another study found a negative or no effect on profit.   Crops studied were apple, barley, beans, cabbage, carrot, gourd, maize, mixed vegetables, pea, pepper, safflower, soybean, tomato and wheat.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F717https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F717Thu, 30 May 2013 09:37:10 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create beetle banksNatural enemies in fields: Six studies from Canada, the UK and USA (three replicated, controlled, of which two were also randomised) examined the effects on predator numbers in adjacent crops. A review found that predators increased in adjacent crops, but one study found effects varied with time and another found no effect. Two studies found small or slow movements of predators from banks to crops. One study found greater beetle activity in fields but this did not improve pest predation. Natural enemies on banks: Four studies and a review found more invertebrate predators on beetle banks than in surrounding crops, but one of these found that effects varied with time. Eight studies from the UK and USA (including two randomised, replicated, controlled trials and two reviews) compared numbers of predatory invertebrates on beetle banks with other refuge habitats. Two studies found more natural enemies on beetle banks, but one of these found only seasonal effects. One review found similar or higher numbers of predators on beetle banks and four studies found similar or lower numbers. Pests: A replicated, randomised study and a review found the largest pest reductions in areas closest to a beetle bank or on the beetle bank itself. One review found fewer pests in fields with than without a beetle bank. Economics: One replicated, randomised, controlled trial and a review showed that beetle banks could make economic savings if they prevented pests from reaching a spray threshold or causing 5% yield loss. Beetle bank design: Two studies from the UK found certain grass species held higher numbers of predatory invertebrates than others. Crops studied were barley, field bean, maize, oats, pea, radish, rapeseed, soybean, wheat and pasture.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F729https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F729Thu, 30 May 2013 14:45:59 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime in forests Eight of 14 studies (including three randomized, replicated, controlled studies) in Australia, North America and the USA found no effect of prescribed forest fires on amphibian abundance or numbers of species. Four found that forest fires had mixed effects on amphibian abundance depending on species, species and year or season of burn. Three found that fires increased amphibian abundance or numbers of species. One found that abundance decreased with fires. Two studies (including one randomized, replicated, controlled study) in the USA found that numbers of amphibian species and abundance increased or abundance decreased with time since prescribed forest fires. One before-and-after study in the USA found that spotted salamander hatching success increased following a prescribed forest fire.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F877https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F877Thu, 12 Sep 2013 12:56:53 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use antifungal treatment to reduce chytridiomycosis infection Twelve of 16 studies (including four randomized, replicated, controlled studies) in Europe, Australia, Tasmania, Japan and the USA found that antifungal treatment cured or increased survival of amphibians with chytridiomycosis. Four studies found that treatments did not cure chytridiomycosis, but did reduce infection levels or had mixed results. Six of the eight studies (including two randomized, replicated, controlled studies) in Japan, Tasmania, the UK and USA testing treatment with itraconazole found that it was effective at curing amphibians of chytridiomycosis. One study found that it reduced infection levels and one found mixed effects. Six studies found that specific fungicides caused death or other negative side effects in amphibians.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F882https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F882Fri, 13 Sep 2013 13:44:14 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Thin trees within forests: effects on mature trees Eleven of 12 studies (including two replicated, randomized, controlled studies) in Brazil, Canada, and the USA found that thinning trees in forests decreased the density and cover of trees. One study found no effect of thinning on tree density. Five of six studies (including one replicated, controlled, before-and-after study) in Australia, Sweden and the USA found that thinning trees in forests increased tree size. One found mixed effects of thinning on tree size. One replicated, controlled study in the USA found that thinning trees in forests decreased tree species richness and diversity. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that thinning reduced the number of conifers killed by beetles. Two replicated, controlled studies in the USA found no effect of thinning on bark-beetle caused tree mortality. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1209https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1209Thu, 19 May 2016 15:02:55 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Water: Grow cover crops in arable fieldsWater use (2 studies): Of two replicated, randomized, controlled studies from Spain, one found that cover crops used more water than bare fallows, and one found no difference in water use. Water availability (16 studies) Water content (9 studies): Seven replicated, randomized, controlled studies from the USA found less water in soils with winter cover crops, compared to soils without them, in some or all comparisons. Two replicated, randomized, controlled studies from the USA found more water in soils with winter cover crops, compared to soils without them, in some comparisons. Water loss (6 studies): Five controlled studies (four replicated, three randomized) from France, Israel, Spain, and the USA found that less water was lost (through drainage, runoff, or evaporation) from plots with cover crops, compared to plots without them, in some or all comparisons. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from Spain found that more water was lost through drainage from plots with winter cover crops, compared to plots without them, in some comparisons. Water infiltration (3 studies): Of two replicated, controlled studies from the USA, one found that more water filtered into soils with cover crops, and one found no difference in infiltration between plots with or without winter cover crops. One controlled study from the USA found that more water percolated deep into the soil in part of a field with a winter cover crop, compared to part with a winter fallow. Pathogens and pesticides (1 study): One replicated, controlled study from France found that less herbicide was leached from soils with winter cover crops, compared to soils without them. Nutrients (5 studies): Four replicated, randomized, controlled studies from Spain and the USA found that less nitrate was leached from soils with winter cover crops, compared to soils without them, in some or all comparisons. One controlled study from the USA found that similar amounts of nitrate were leached from part of a field with a winter cover crop and part with a winter fallow. This study also found less ammonium and dissolved carbon, but more phosphorus, in runoff from the part with the winter cover crop, in some comparisons. Sediments (1 study): One controlled study from the USA found less suspended sediment in runoff from part of a field with a winter cover crop, compared to a winter fallow, in some comparisons. Implementation options (5 studies): One study from Spain found more water in soils with long-term cover crops, compared to short-term, in some comparisons. Two studies from Spain and the USA found differences in water availability between plots with different cover crops. One study from Spain found differences in nitrate leaching between plots with different cover crops. One study from the USA found similar infiltration rates under different cover crops.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1357https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1357Thu, 04 May 2017 13:33:53 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Pest regulation: Grow cover crops in arable fieldsPest regulation (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found that fewer aphids were parasitized in plots with cover crops (living mulches) between broccoli plants, compared to plots without cover crops, in some comparisons. Crop damage (6 studies): Three controlled studies (two replicated and randomized) from the USA found similar numbers of diseased broccoli seedlings or tomato plants in plots with or without winter cover crops. Two replicated, randomized, controlled studies from the USA found less-severely diseased lettuces in plots with winter cover crops, compared to winter fallows, in some comparisons. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found inconsistent differences in tomato damage between plots with cover crops or fallows. Ratio of natural enemies to pests (0 studies) Pest numbers (14 studies) Weeds (8 studies): Four replicated, randomized, controlled studies from Israel and Italy found fewer weeds in plots with cover crops, compared to plots without them, in some or all comparisons. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found more weeds in plots with winter cover crops, compared to plots without them, in some comparisons. Two replicated, controlled studies (one randomized) from Italy and the USA found that winter cover crops had inconsistent effects on weeds (sometimes more, sometimes fewer, compared to plots without winter cover crops). One controlled study from the USA found similar amounts of weeds in plots with winter cover crops or fallows. Weed species (2 studies): One replicated, randomized, controlled study from Italy found fewer weed species in plots with winter cover crops, compared to plots without them, in one of three comparisons. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found different weed communities in plots with or without winter cover crops. Other pests (6 studies): Two replicated, randomized, controlled studies from the USA found fewer aphids in plots with cover crops (living mulches) between broccoli plants, compared to plots without cover crops, in some comparisons. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found more mites (in some comparisons), but similar numbers of centipedes and springtails, in plots with winter cover crops, compared to plots without them. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found similar numbers of leafminers in plots with or without winter cover crops. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found similar amounts of fungus in soils with or without winter cover crops. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from the USA found inconsistent differences in nematode numbers between soils with cover crops or fallows. Natural enemy numbers (0 studies) Implementation options (13 studies): Nine studies from Israel, Italy, and the USA found that different cover crops had different effects on crop damage or pest numbers. Two studies from the USA found that different cover crops (living mulches) did not have different effects on pest regulation or pest numbers. Two studies from the USA found that different methods of seeding cover crops had different effects on pest numbers.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1394https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1394Mon, 15 May 2017 16:19:52 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Other biodiversity: Use grazers to manage vegetationAmphibians (0 studies) Birds (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled study in grasslands in the USA found higher densities of dabbling duck nests, but similar nesting success, in cattle-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots. Invertebrates (4 studies): Two replicated studies (one controlled, one site comparison) in grasslands in the USA and Spain found more invertebrates in sheep-, goat-, or cattle-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots, in some or all comparisons. One before-and-after study in grassland in the USA found that a threatened, endemic butterfly species did not recolonize a site after grazing was reintroduced. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in grasslands in the USA found fewer invertebrates in plots with simulated grazing, compared to ungrazed plots, but found similar numbers of invertebrate species. One replicated site comparison in forested grasslands in Spain found higher beetle diversity in grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots, in one of two beetle groups. Two replicated studies (one randomized and controlled) in grasslands in the USA and Spain found different invertebrate communities in grazed and ungrazed plots. Mammals (2 studies): Two replicated, controlled studies (one randomized before-and-after study) in grasslands in the USA found that abundances of some or all rodents were higher, or increased more, on sheep- or cow-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots. However, they also found that some species were less abundant or monthly survival was lower on grazed plots. Plants (15 studies) Abundance (14 studies): Eight studies (two meta-analyses; two replicated, randomized, and controlled) from grasslands, shrublands, and forests in the USA, Spain, and France found higher cover or higher abundance of some groups of plants (or lower cover of undesirable plants), on cattle-, sheep-, or goat-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots. Six studies (five replicated; one randomized and controlled) from grasslands in Spain and the USA found lower cover or lower abundance of some groups of plants on cattle-, sheep-, or goat-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots (or after grazers were reintroduced). Three replicated, controlled studies (two randomized) from grasslands in the USA found similar cover or biomass on grazed or ungrazed plots. Diversity (7 studies): Three studies (one meta-analysis; two replicated site comparisons) from grasslands in the USA found more plant species on grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots, in some or all comparisons. One of these studies also found fewer species of some plant groups on grazed plots, and two of these stuides also found more non-native species on grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots. Two replicated, controlled studies (one randomized) in grasslands in the USA and France found no difference in the number of plant species between cattle- or sheep-grazed plots and ungrazed plots. Two replicated controlled studies (one randomized) from grasslands in the USA and France found no difference in plant diversity between cattle- or sheep-grazed plots and ungrazed plots. One replicated, randomized, controlled study grasslands and woodlands in the USA found that plant community composition varied between cattle-grazed and ungrazed plots. Survival (3 studies): Of two studies on purple needlegrass mortality from grasslands in the USA, one replicated, randomized, controlled study found lower mortality on sheep-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots, in some comparisons, but found higher mortality in other comparisons, and one replicated, controlled study found no difference in mortality between cattle-grazed plots and ungrazed plots. One replicated, randomized, controlled study from grasslands in the USA found lower germination rates in purple needlegrass seeds from sheep-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots, in some comparisons. Reptiles (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in grasslands in the USA found that the abundance of some lizard species increased at a greater rate on cattle-grazed plots, compared to ungrazed plots. Implementation options (1 study): One study from the USA found more invertebrates on plots with simulated grazing, compared to ungrazed plots, when these plots were planted with non-native plants. One study in shrublands in Spain found lower gorse cover in plots grazed by goats, compared to sheep, as well as other differences in plant biomass and cover.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1419https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1419Fri, 19 May 2017 11:26:09 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Treat sick/injured animals Two before-and-after studies in Brazil found that most reintroduced golden lion tamarins died despite being treated when sick or injured, alongside other interventions. One study in Brazil found that one out of four reintroduced black lion tamarins died after being release despite receiving treatment, alongside other interventions. One review on reintroduced lar gibbons in Thailand found that their population declined by 6% seventeen months after release despite having medical treatment available when sick or injured, alongside other interventions. One study in Malaysia found that 98% of translocated orangutans, some of which received treatment for injuries along with other interventions, survived capture and subsequent release. One controlled study, also in Malaysia, found that a population of reintroduced orangutans decreased by 33% over 33 years despite receiving treatment when sick or injured, alongside other interventions. Four studies, including two before-and-after studies, in Liberia, the Republic of Congo and The Gambia found that most reintroduced chimpanzees that were treated when sick, alongside other interventions, survived for at least 1-5 years and in one case the population increased. One study in Senegal found that a young chimpanzee was reunited with its mother after being treated for injuries, alongside other interventions. One before-and-after study in Uganda found that treatment for mange, alongside other interventions, cured some infected mountain gorillas. One study in Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo and one before-and-after, site comparison study in the Republic of Congo and Gabon found that most western lowland gorillas treated when sick or injured, alongside other interventions, survived over 4–41 years. Two before-and-after studies in South Africa and Indonesia found that most reintroduced or translocated primates that were treated when sick, alongside other interventions, survived over six months. However, two before-and-after studies in Madagascar and Kenya found that most reintroduced or translocated primates did not survived over five years or their population size decreased despite treated when sick, alongside other interventions. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1550https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1550Thu, 19 Oct 2017 18:35:05 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Add mixed vegetation to peatland surface Eighteen studies evaluated the effects on peatland vegetation of spreading mixed vegetation onto the peatland surface. All 18 studies were in bogs (two being restored as fens). One study was a continuation of an earlier study. Characteristic plants (1 study): One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in a degraded bog in Canada found that adding fen vegetation increased the number and cover of fen-characteristic plant species. Sphagnum moss cover (17 studies): Seventeen replicated studies (five also randomized, paired, controlled, before-and-after) in bogs in Canada, the USA and Estonia reported that Sphagnum moss was present, after 1–6 growing seasons, in at least some plots sown with vegetation containing Sphagnum. Cover ranged from <1 to 73%. Six of the studies were controlled and found that Sphagnum cover was higher in sown than unsown plots. Five of the studies reported that Sphagnum cover was very low (<1%) unless plots were mulched after spreading fragments. Other moss cover (8 studies): Eight replicated studies (seven before-and-after, one controlled) in bogs in Canada, the USA and Estonia reported that mosses or bryophytes other than Sphagnum were present, after 1–6 growing seasons, in at least some plots sown with mixed peatland vegetation. Cover was <1–65%. Vascular plant cover (10 studies): Ten replicated studies in Canada, the USA and Estonia reported that vascular plants appeared following addition of mixed vegetation fragments to bogs. Two of the studies were controlled: one found that vascular plant cover was significantly higher in sown than unsown plots, but one found that sowing peatland vegetation did not affect herb cover. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1822https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1822Tue, 28 Nov 2017 08:45:54 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove vegetation by hand/machine Twenty studies evaluated the effects on mammals of removing vegetation by hand or machine. Eleven studies were in the USA, and one each was in Canada, South Africa, Israel, Norway, Portugal, France, Spain, the Netherlands and Thailand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): A site comparison study in the USA found that mechanically clearing trees within woodland reduced small mammal diversity. POPULATION RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Abundance (11 studies): Eight of 11 site comparison or controlled studies (nine of which were replicated), in the USA, Israel, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands, found that clearing woody vegetation or herbaceous and grassland vegetation benefitted target mammals. Population or density increases were recorded for small mammals, European rabbits and Stephens’ kangaroo rat while black-tailed prairie dog and California ground squirrel colonies were larger or denser and Utah prairie dog colonies established better than in uncleared areas. Two studies found mixed results of clearing woody vegetation, with hazel dormouse abundance declining, then increasing and small mammal abundance increasing, then declining in both cleared and uncleared plots alike. One study found no effect of scrub clearance from sand dunes on habitat specialist small mammals. Survival (1 study): A replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that mechanical disturbance of woody vegetation within forest (combined with reseeding, follow-up herbicide application and further seeding) increased overwinter survival of mule deer fawns. BEHAVIOUR (8 STUDIES) Use (8 studies): Four of seven studies (of which six were site comparisons or controlled), in the USA, Canada, Norway, France and Thailand, found that areas cleared of woody vegetation or herbaceous and grassland vegetation were utilized more by mule deer, reindeer, mouflon and gaur. One study found that clearing woody vegetation promoted increased use by white-tailed deer in some but not all plots, one found that it did not increase use by mule deer and one found that carrying out a second clearance on previously cleared plots did not increase use by white-tailed deer. A before-and-after study in South Africa found that clearing woody vegetation from shrubland increased wildebeest and zebra abundance following subsequent burning but not when carried out without burning whilst other mammals did not show consistent responses. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2550https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2550Tue, 09 Jun 2020 10:10:24 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Modify the design or configuration of trawl gear (mixed measures) Nineteen studies examined the effects of modifying the design or configuration of trawl gear on marine fish populations. Seven studies were in the Clarence River estuary (Australia), three studies were in each of the Mediterranean Sea (Turkey) and North Sea (UK), two studies were in the North Pacific Ocean (USA), and one study was in each of the South Pacific Ocean, the Skagerrak and Baltic Sea (Denmark/Sweden), the Atlantic Ocean (USA) and the Coral Sea (Australia).  COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (19 STUDIES) Reduce unwanted catch (16 studies): Twelve of 16 replicated studies (seven paired and controlled, five controlled, and two paired) in the Clarence River estuary, South Pacific Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Skagerrak and Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, North Sea and the Coral Sea, found that various modifications to trawl gear, including changes to the trawl wires, number of nets, codend number, footrope configuration, front trawl body panels, codend netting layers, spreading mechanism, method of weaving, knot orientation or using a new overall trawl design, resulted in reduced unwanted catches of non-target and/or discarded fish species or sizes, and of all sizes of four of seven commercial species, compared to standard unmodified trawl gear or other trawl designs. One of these also found increased catch rate of one commercial species and for another two species the effect varied with fish size. Two studies found that modified trawl gear reduced the unwanted catch of only a small proportion of the number of individual fish species caught compared to other trawl configurations, and also that unwanted fish catches varied between day/night. One study found that different trawl configurations had mixed effects on the numbers and sizes of non-target fish catch. The other study found no reduction in catches of discarded finfish between a modified and standard trawl codend. Improved size-selectivity of fishing gear (5 studies): Five replicated, controlled studies in the North Sea and Mediterranean Sea found that various modifications to trawl gear, including changes to the length of the extension piece, the codend strengthening bag, the method of weaving, the number of codend layers and overall design improved the size-selectivity for unwanted (non-target/discarded) fish species or sizes, and annular seabream in one of two cases, compared to unmodified standard trawl gear or other design configurations. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2704https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2704Thu, 17 Dec 2020 11:29:15 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Fit a size-sorting escape grid (rigid or flexible) to a fish trawl net Eighteen studies examined the effects of fitting size-sorting escape grids to a fish trawl net on marine fish populations. Six studies were in the North Sea (France, Norway, Scotland), three were in the North Atlantic Ocean (Portugal, USA), and two were in the Norwegian Sea (Norway). One study was in each of the Barents Sea (Norway), the South Atlantic Ocean (Namibia), the Mediterranean Sea (Spain), the Adriatic Sea (Italy), the Gulf of Maine (USA), and the Baltic Sea (northern Europe). One study was in a laboratory (Japan).  COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated study in a laboratory in Japan found that masu salmon were able to actively escape through a rigid escape grid, irrespective of grid orientation and towing speed, but escape was reduced in dark conditions compared to light. OTHER (17 STUDIES) Reduction of unwanted catch (14 studies): Eleven of 14 replicated studies (three paired and controlled) in the North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Barents Sea, South Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Gulf of Maine and Baltic Sea found that fitting size-sorting escape grids of various types and configurations to fish trawl nets reduced the catches of unwanted small mackerel, small monkfish, non-target whiting and haddock, small hake, unwanted spiny dogfish, non-target herring, prohibited halibut, unwanted sizes of cod and other non-target fish, relative to the retained codend catch or compared to trawls without grids. One study found that fitting size-sorting escape grids of three designs to fish trawl nets reduced the discarded catch of nine of 12 fish species and the overall amount of discarded catch (fish and invertebrates combined), relative to the retained codend catch. One study found that fitting size-sorting escape grids had a mixed effect on the reduction of unwanted and/or undersized fish catch relative to the retained codend catch depending on fish ecological group. The other study found that, compared to standard trawl nets without escape grids, trawls with size-sorting escape grids reduced the overall catch of whiting, but not of undersized whiting. Improved size-selection of fishing gear (3 studies): Two of three replicated studies (two paired and controlled and one controlled) in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea, found that a size-sorting escape grid fitted to trawl nets improved the size-selection of haddock, but not saithe or cod, compared to standard nets without grids. One study found that trawl nets fitted with an escape grid did not improve the size-selection of cod and haddock compared to trawl nets fitted with square mesh escape windows. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2720https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2720Fri, 08 Jan 2021 16:54:19 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cut/mow herbaceous plants to maintain or restore disturbance: freshwater marshes Twenty studies evaluated the effects, on vegetation, of cutting/mowing to maintain or restore disturbance in freshwater marshes. There were four studies in Belgium, three of which took place in one wetland area so probably shared some experimental plots. There were two studies in each of the UK, the USA and Estonia. There was one study in each of seven other European countries, Japan, Mexico and Brazil. In 15 of the studies vegetation was measured at least six months after the last cut. VEGETATION COMMUNITY Community composition (6 studies): Four replicated, paired, controlled studies (two also randomized and before-and-after) of freshwater marshes and wet meadows in Belgium, Switzerland, Mexico and Estonia reported that the overall plant community composition differed between cut and uncut sites after 1–5 years, or typically diverged in cut and uncut areas over 3–10 years. One before-and-after study in a freshwater marsh in Belgium reported that the overall plant community composition changed over seven years after resuming annual mowing. One replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in wet grasslands in Germany reported that over 20 years, mowing increased the average moisture preference of the vegetation. Overall richness/diversity (11 studies): Seven studies (including two replicated, paired, controlled) in freshwater marshes in Belgium, the UK, Mexico and Estonia reported that cut marshes had higher plant species richness than uncut marshes. Two of these studies reported the same result for diversity. One before-and-after study in a freshwater marsh in Belgium reported that plant species richness increased over seven years after resuming annual mowing. Three replicated, paired, controlled studies in reedbeds in the UK and wet meadows in Germany and Estonia reported that cutting typically had no clear or significant effect on plant species richness, after 3–5 months or over 5–20 years. The two studies in the UK and Estonia found the same result for diversity. Characteristic plant richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in a temporary marsh in France reported that two years of annual autumn cutting increased the number of habitat-characteristic plant species present. VEGETATION ABUNDANCE Overall abundance (3 studies): Two replicated, controlled studies (one also randomized, paired, before-and-after) in freshwater marshes in the USA found that cutting had no significant effect on overall vegetation cover over 72 days or three years. One replicated, paired, controlled study in wet grasslands in Belgium reported that plots mown annually for two years contained less above-ground biomass, just before mowing, than unmown plots. Herb abundance (1 study): One replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in wet grasslands in Germany reported that mowing increased sedge cover over 20 years, but had no clear effect on cover of rushes, forbs, ferns, grasses and legumes. Tree/shrub abundance (1 study): One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in a wet prairie in the USA found that cutting had no significant effect on woody plant cover: there were similar increases, over three years, in cut and uncut plots. Bryophyte abundance (1 study): One replicated study in a freshwater marsh in Belgium reported that total moss cover increased over five years after resuming annual mowing. Individual species abundance (15 studies): Fifteen studies quantified the effect of this action on the abundance of individual plant species. For example, five studies (including one replicated, randomized, paired, controlled) in freshwater marshes in Belgium, the UK and the Czech Republic reported that common reed Phragmites australis was more abundant in cut than uncut areas. Two studies (one site comparison, one before-and-after) in fresh/brackish marshes in Belgium and Denmark reported that cutting reduced common reed cover or density. The two studies in Belgium reported that cutting had no clear effect on common reed frequency. Four studies (including one replicated, randomized, paired, before-and-after) in freshwater marshes in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Japan and Italy found that the effect of cutting on common reed abundance depended on factors such as the year, plant community type, cutting season, cutting intensity and time since mowing. VEGETATION STRUCTURE Overall structure (1 study): One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in wet meadows in Switzerland reported that mown plots experienced a shift in vegetation cover towards lower vegetation layers, over 3–4 years, compared to a shift to upper layers in unmown plots. Visual obstruction (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in a freshwater marsh in Belgium reported that summer-cut plots had lower horizontal vegetation cover than uncut plots (or winter-cut plots) over six years after resuming annual mowing. Height (6 studies): Three replicated, controlled studies (one also randomized and paired) in freshwater marshes in Belgium, the UK and the USA reported that cut marshes had shorter vegetation than uncut marshes. This was true for vegetation overall, vegetation other than common reed Phragmites australis, and for common reed cut in winter or spring (but not summer). Two replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after studies in a marsh in Mexico and wet grasslands in Germany reported that cutting/mowing had no significant or clear effect on vegetation height, after 12 months or over 20 years. One site comparison study in the Czech Republic found that common reed was taller, when measured in the summer, in a winter-mown reedbed than in an unmown reedbed. Diameter/perimeter/area (5 studies): Two studies (one site comparison, one before-and-after) in fresh/brackish marshes in Belgium and Denmark reported that cutting, or time since last cutting, had no significant or clear effect on the stem diameter of common reed Phragmites australis. Two studies (including one replicated, randomized, paired, controlled) of reedbeds in the UK and the Czech Republic found that cut areas contained thicker reed stems than uncut areas, after one growing season. One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in wet meadows in Switzerland found that the effect of cutting on common reed shoot diameter depended on the plant community type and season of mowing. Basal area (1 study): One site comparison study in a fresh/brackish marsh in Denmark found that the basal area of common reed Phragmites australis stems was smaller in a reedbed cut two years previously than in a reedbed cut seven years previously. Only “tall” stems were sampled. OTHER Survival (1 study): One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in a wet prairie in the USA found that mowing had no significant effect on woody plant survival over the following year. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3044https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3044Thu, 01 Apr 2021 15:18:37 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Introduce tree/shrub seeds or propagules: brackish/saline wetlands Nineteen studies evaluated the effects, on vegetation, of introducing seeds or propagules of trees/shrubs to brackish/saline wetlands. All 19 studies involved planting mangrove propagules: seven in Asia, five in North America, three in Central America, two in Oceania, one in South America and one globally. Three studies in the USA shared some study sites. VEGETATION COMMUNITY Overall extent (2 studies): Two studies in the USA and Sri Lanka simply quantified the area of mangrove vegetation present 6–14 years after planting propagules (along with other interventions). Relative abundance (1 study): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in the USA reported that mangrove forests created by planting propagules (after reprofiling) supported a different relative abundance of tree species to natural forests, after 7–15 years. Tree/shrub richness/diversity (2 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the USA reported that mangrove forests created by planting propagules (along with other interventions) contained a similar number of tree species to mature natural forests, after 7–30 years. VEGETATION ABUNDANCE Tree/shrub abundance (3 studies): Three replicated, site comparison studies of coastal sites in the USA and the Philippines reported that where mangrove forests developed after planting propagules (along with other interventions), trees were typically more dense than in mature natural forests. VEGETATION STRUCTURE Overall structure (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the USA reported that mangrove forests created by planting propagules (along with other interventions) had a different overall physical structure to mature natural forests, after 17–30 years. Height (4 studies): Four studies (three replicated) in Thailand, the USA, Mexico and the United Arab Emirates simply quantified the height of surviving mangrove trees for up to 16 years after sowing seeds or planting propagules; in all of these studies, the average height increased over time. Diameter/perimeter/area (3 studies): Two site comparison studies (one also replicated and paired) in the USA reported that mangrove forests created by planting propagules (after reprofiling) contained thinner trees, on average, than mature natural forests, after 7–18 years. One study in a coastal area planted with mangrove propagules in Thailand reported that the average diameter of surviving seedlings increased over time. Basal area (3 studies): Three site comparison studies (two also replicated, one also paired) in the USA compared mangrove forests created by planting propagules (along with other interventions) and mature natural forests. Two of the studies reported that planted forests had a smaller basal area than mature natural forests, after 7–18 years. The other study reported that planted forests had similar basal area to mature natural forests, after 17–30 years. OTHER            Germination/emergence (2 studies): One replicated study in the United Arab Emirates reported 65–92% germination of sown grey mangrove Avicennia marina seeds, across five coastal sites. One replicated study in a brackish/saline estuary in China reported 38–100% germination of planted mangrove propagules, depending on the species and habitat. Survival (16 studies): Fifteen studies quantified survival of individual tree/shrub propagules planted in brackish/saline wetlands (or plants originating from them). All 15 studies were of mangroves: in Central/South America, Asia, North America, Oceania or gloablly. All reported survival in at least some cases, from 20 days to 30 years after planting. Five studies reported 100% survival in some cases. However, nine studies reported 0% survival or absence of planted species in some cases. In five studies, survival of seeds or propagules was not distinguished from survival of planted seedlings. Proposed factors affecting survival rates included elevation/water levels, substrate, invertebrate herbivory, use of tree shelters, mechanical stress, oyster colonization, use of guidance, post-planting care and repeated planting. Growth (5 studies): Five studies monitored true growth of individual trees/shrubs (rather than changes in average height of survivors). All five studies (three replicated) in Australia, the USA, Colombia and the Philippines reported that mangrove seedlings, originating from planted seeds or propagules, grew over time. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3267https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3267Sat, 10 Apr 2021 15:36:07 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create 'rock pools' on intertidal artificial structures Eighteen studies examined the effects of creating ‘rock pools’ on intertidal artificial structures on the biodiversity of those structures. Ten studies were in estuaries in Australia, the UK and eastern USA, five were on open coastlines in the UK, Ireland and southeast Spain, two were in straits in the UK and Malaysia, and one was in a marina in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (17 STUDIES) Overall community composition (16 studies): Thirteen replicated, controlled studies (including one randomized, six paired sites and three site comparison studies) in Australia the UK, the USA, Spain and Malaysia, reported that rock pools created on intertidal artificial structures, along with holes in two studies, supported macroalgae, mobile invertebrate, non-mobile invertebrate and/or fish species that were absent from structure surfaces without pools or holes. One of the studies also found that pools supported different combined macroalgae and invertebrate community composition to surfaces without pools. One replicated, paired sites, controlled study in Australia found mixed effects on the community composition depending on the pool depth, shore level and site. One of the studies found that created pools supported different combined macroalgae and non-mobile invertebrate communities but similar combined mobile invertebrate and fish communities to natural rock pools, while one found that combined mobile invertebrate and fish communities differed to natural pools. Two of the studies found that the pool depth did not affect the community composition, while one found that the pool angle did. One replicated study in Ireland found that the shore level and wave-exposure affected the community composition, and that wave-sheltered pools filled with sediment within two years. One replicated, randomized study in Australia found that adding short flexible habitats into pools had mixed effects on community composition depending on the species group and site. Overall richness/diversity (15 studies): Nine of 12 replicated, controlled studies (including one randomized, six paired sites and two site comparison studies) in Australia, the UK, Spain and Malaysia found that rock pools created on intertidal artificial structures, along with holes in two studies, supported higher combined macroalgae, invertebrate and/or fish species diversity and/or richness than structure surfaces without pools or holes. Three studies reported similar combined macroalgae and invertebrate or combined mobile invertebrate and fish species richness in pools and on structure surfaces. One of the studies found that combined macroalgae, invertebrate and fish species richness in created pools was similar to natural rock pools, while one reported lower combined mobile invertebrate and fish species richness in created pools. Two of the studies, along with one replicated study in Ireland, found that the shore level of pools, along with holes in one, did not affect the species richness, but in one, the functional richness (species grouped according to their role in the community) was lower in highshore pools than midshore. Three of the studies found that the pool depth had no effect on species richness, one found higher richness in tilted pools than horizontal ones, and one replicated, randomized study in Australia found that adding short flexible habitats into pools had mixed effects depending on the species group and site. One before-and-after study in Australia reported that creating pools, along with reducing the slope of a structure, increased the combined macroalgae, invertebrate and fish species richness on the structure. Fish richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, paired sites, controlled and site comparison study in Australia reported that creating rock pools on an intertidal artificial structure did not increase the fish species richness on and around the structure. POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Overall abundance (1 study): One replicated, randomized study in Australia found that adding short flexible habitats into rock pools created on intertidal artificial structures had mixed effects on macroalgae, invertebrate and fish abundance in pools, depending on the species group and site. Algal abundance (1 study): One replicated, paired sites, controlled study in Australia found that creating rock pools on intertidal artificial structures had mixed effects on macroalgal abundances depending on the pool depth, shore level, species group and site. Invertebrate abundance (2 studies): Two replicated, controlled studies (including one with paired sites) in Australia found that creating rock pools on intertidal artificial structures, along with holes in one, had mixed effects on limpet or combined invertebrate abundances, depending on the shore level, pool depth, species group and/or site. Fish abundance (1 study): One replicated, paired sites, controlled and site comparison study in Australia found that creating rock pools on an intertidal artificial structure had mixed effects on the fish abundance on and around the structure, depending on the species group and site. BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): Two studies (including one before-and-after study) in Australia reported that rock pools created on intertidal artificial structures, along with holes in one study, were used by sea slugs, urchins, octopuses, macroalgae, invertebrates and fishes. Fish behaviour change (1 study): One replicated, randomized study in Australia found that adding short flexible habitats into rock pools created on intertidal artificial structures did not increase the number of bites fishes took of pool surfaces. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3476https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3476Tue, 21 Sep 2021 17:49:20 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Snakes – Colubrids Eighteen studies evaluated the effects of breeding colubrid snakes in captivity. Ten studies were in the USA, two were the UK, two were in unknown locations and one was in each of Costa Rica, Taiwan, India and Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (18 STUDIES) Reproductive success (18 studies): Seventeen studies in the USA, Costa Rica, the UK, Taiwan, Australia, India and unknown locations reported that 1–2 female colubrid snakes produced 1–12 clutches of 3–16 eggs. Ten of those studies reported hatching success of 67–100%, two reported hatching success of 25% and two reported that hatching success varied from 0–75%. Two of the studies reported that at least 18–20 eggs hatched successfully. One study also found that captive-bred offspring produced two clutches of 3–4 eggs and all hatched successfully. One study in the USA reported that three female San Francisco garter snakes produced broods of 9–35 young. Survival (5 studies): Five studies in the USA and the UK found that 2–20 captive-bred snakes survived for at least 1–3 months and 2–3 years in captivity, and that from six broods of 9–35 captive-bred San Francisco garter snakes, six young died within four months of birth. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3748https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3748Tue, 14 Dec 2021 13:03:41 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Head-start wild-caught reptiles for release: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles Eighteen studies evaluated the effects of head-starting wild-caught tortoises, terrapins, side-necked and softshell turtles for release. Thirteen studies were in the USA, two were in Venezuela and one was in each of the Galápagos, Poland and Madagascar. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (18 STUDIES) Abundance (1 study): One controlled study in Venezuela found that 57% of captured giant sideneck river turtles were head-started individuals. Survival (13 studies): Two of three studies (including one replicated, controlled study) in the USA and Poland found that head-started European pond turtles and desert tortoises had similar survival compared to wild turtles or hatchlings released directly into the wild. The other study found that head-started northern redbelly turtles had higher survival than wild hatchling turtles. This study also found that in the first year of release, larger head-started turtles had higher survival, but in year 2–3 survival was similar for all sizes. Four of 12 studies (including nine replicated studies) in the Galápago, the USA, Madagascar and Venezuela reported that 50–100% of head-started individuals survived for three months to 1–5 years after release. Three of the studies reported that 6–43% of individuals survived for 1–3 years. Two of the studies reported that six of six, two of 10 and nine of 10 radio-tracked individuals survived 3–12 months. Two of the studies reported that annual survival was 80–100% or 3–100% in the year following release but 82–100% in subsequent years. The other study reported that some giant sideneck river turtles survived up to 14 years. Two studies also reported that survival during the captive phase was 91–100%. One study also found that more tortoises head-started in outdoor seaside pens died than did those from indoor pens. One replicated, controlled study in Venezuela found that survival of Arrau turtles during the captive phase was lower for turtles from relocated nests compared to those from nests that were not moved. Condition (5 studies): One of two replicated studies in the USA found that two-year-old head-started gopher tortoises were larger at their time of release than two-year-old tortoises released in to the wild directly after hatching. The other study found that Agassiz’s desert tortoise hatchlings grew more slowly in captivity than tortoises in the wild. Two studies (including one replicated study) in the USA found that Alabama red-bellied cooters and wood turtles grew during 12–16 months in captivity, and wood turtles showed no signs of shell malformation. One controlled study in Venezuela found that the size distribution of released head-started giant sideneck river turtles was similar to that of wild turtles when newly released individuals were excluded. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One study in the USA found that 81% of desert tortoises established home ranges within 13 days of release. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3776https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3776Wed, 15 Dec 2021 12:31:41 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Maintain species-rich, semi-natural grassland Nineteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of maintaining species-rich, semi-natural grassland. Five studies were in Germany, four were in the USA, two were in each of Switzerland and the Czech Republic, and one was in each of Finland and Russia, China, Italy, Spain, Hungary and Austria. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Community composition (6 studies): Four replicated, site comparison studies in the USA, the Czech Republic, Austria and Germany found that the community composition of butterflies, day-flying moths and nocturnal moths was different between summer cattle-grazed, early-mown and late-mown grassland, between mown and grazed grassland, and between prairies managed by cattle grazing and/or rotational burning. However, one of these studies found that the community composition of butterflies was similar in mown and grazed grassland. Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Czech Republic and Germany found that species-rich grassland managed by grazing or mowing had a similar community composition of butterflies and burnet moths to abandoned grassland. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that meadows managed by mowing at least twice/year after mid-June had a different community composition of butterflies to sown wildflower strips. Richness/diversity (11 studies): Three of six site comparison studies (including five replicated studies) in Germany, the USA, Russia and Finland, Italy and the Czech Republic found that the species richness of butterflies was similar on semi-natural grassland managed by light grazing or by annual mowing in July or August, and on prairies managed by cattle grazing and/or rotational burning. One study found that the species richness of butterflies was higher in grassland managed by sheep and cattle grazing than in grassland mown annually for hay in June. One study found that the species richness of moths was higher in grassland managed by annual mowing than grassland managed by grazing, and the species richness of butterflies was highest in grasslands where mowing was staggered throughout the year, with some areas left uncut. The sixth study found that in some areas, the species richness of specialist and grassland butterflies was higher in prairies managed by two-year rotational haying, and in other areas it was higher in prairies managed by grazing, but in all cases richness was higher at sites longer after they were last managed. Two replicated, site comparison studies in Germany found that species-rich grasslands managed by summer-grazing, grazing or mowing had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths and nocturnal moths to unmanaged grassland. However, one of these studies also found that grasslands managed by mowing had a lower species richness of nocturnal moths than unmown grassland. Two replicated, site comparison studies in Germany and Hungary found that old meadows mown in July and lightly grazed or annually mown meadows had a higher species richness of adult butterflies and caterpillars than recently established set-aside or cereal crops. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that meadows mown at least twice/year after mid-June had a similar species richness of butterflies to sown wildflower strips. POPULATION RESPONSE (16 STUDIES) Abundance (16 studies): Five of ten site comparison studies (including nine replicated studies) in Germany, the USA, Russia and Finland, Italy, Spain and the Czech Republic found that semi-natural grasslands had a similar abundance of butterflies generally, and individual species of butterflies and moth caterpillars, when managed by extensive sheep, sheep and goat, cattle or livestock grazing compared to annual or occasional mowing, or rotational mowing or burning. Four of these studies found that grasslands managed by cattle, sheep or livestock grazing had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and individual species of butterflies and moth caterpillars, than grasslands managed by annual mowing, rotational burning or unmanaged grasslands. Three of these studies found that grasslands managed by haying had a higher abundance of individual butterfly species than grasslands managed by grazing or burning or unmanaged grasslands. Four of these studies found that specific butterfly species and all butterflies were less abundant in mown, grazed or rotationally burned grassland than in unmanaged, rotationally burned or grazed and burned grassland. The ninth study found that in some areas, the abundance of specialist and grassland butterflies was higher in prairies managed by two-year rotational haying or by grazing, but in all cases abundance was higher at sites longer after they were last managed. One of three replicated, site comparison studies in Germany and Switzerland found that traditional hay meadows mown once/year in June or July had a higher abundance of heath fritillary adults and caterpillars than old, abandoned meadows. One study found that summer-grazed or mown grasslands had a higher abundance of farmland butterflies and burnet moths, but a lower abundance of woodland butterflies and burnet moths, than abandoned grasslands. The third study found that mown grasslands had a lower abundance of moths than unmown grasslands, but grazed grasslands had a similar abundance of moths to ungrazed grasslands. Two replicated, site comparison studies in China and Switzerland found that semi-natural grasslands managed by grazing or cutting twice/year after mid-June had a lower abundance of marsh fritillary eggs and caterpillars and adult butterflies than ungrazed margins and intercrops or sown wildflower strips. One replicated, site comparison study in Hungary found that semi-natural grasslands managed by either light grazing or mowing once/year in May or June had a higher abundance of butterflies than conventional wheat fields. Survival (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in China found that marsh fritillary eggs had a similar survival rate in uncultivated, grazed meadows and cultivated, ungrazed field margins and intercrops, but the survival of caterpillars was higher in the grazed meadows. BEHAVIOUR (5 STUDIES) Use (5 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in Austria and Germany found that 14 species of moth preferred grazed pastures while 24 others avoided them, and three species of butterfly and ten nocturnal moths preferred mown meadows, while 19 nocturnal moth species avoided them. One replicated, site comparison study in Spain found that meadows managed by summer-grazing or hay-mowing were more likely to be occupied by grizzled skipper and painted lady than unmanaged meadows, but small pearl-bordered fritillary occurred less frequently in grazed meadows than in hay meadows or abandoned meadows. One replicated, site comparison study in Finland and Russia found that three of 37 butterfly species preferred meadows which were mown annually in July or August to cattle-grazed pasture, but the other 34 species showed no preference. One replicated, site comparison study in China found that uncultivated, grazed meadows were less likely to be occupied by marsh fritillary eggs and caterpillars than cultivated field margins and intercrops.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3908https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3908Wed, 10 Aug 2022 11:31:24 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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