Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use voluntary agreements with local people to reduce disturbanceA before-and-after trial in the USA found significantly lower disturbance rates following the establishment of a voluntary waterfowl avoidance area (VWAA), despite an overall increase in boat traffic.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F313https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F313Wed, 25 Jul 2012 18:06:42 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Start educational programmes for personal watercraft ownersA before-and-after trial in the USA found that rates of disturbance by personal watercraft decreased and reproductive success of common terns Sterna hirundo increased following a series of educational programmes aimed at recreational boat users.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F314https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F314Wed, 25 Jul 2012 18:11:40 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Habituate birds to human visitorsA replicated, controlled study from Australia found that bridled terns Sterna anaethetus in heavily disturbed had similar or higher reproductive success compared with less-disturbed sites, possibly suggesting that habituation had occurred.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F315https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F315Wed, 25 Jul 2012 18:18:05 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use nest covers to reduce the impact of research on predation of ground-nesting seabirdsA before-and-after study in Canada found that protecting Caspian tern Sterna caspia nests after researchers disturbed parents from them significantly increased hatching success. This was due to a reduction in predation by ring-billed gulls Larus delawarensis.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F316https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F316Wed, 25 Jul 2012 18:26:31 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Translocate auksA replicated study in the USA and Canada found that 20% of 774 translocated Atlantic puffins Fratercula arctica remained in or near the release site, with up to 7% breeding.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F570https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F570Sun, 30 Sep 2012 13:02:20 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Translocate herons, storks and ibisesA before-and-after study in the USA found that a colony of black-crowned night herons Nycticorax nycticorax was successfully moved, with the new colony producing chicks the year after translocation.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F575https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F575Sun, 30 Sep 2012 14:25:50 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Exclude fish with barriers One controlled study in Mexico found that excluding fish using a barrier increased weight gain of axolotls.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F829https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F829Wed, 28 Aug 2013 14:59:09 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Remove or control viperine snakes One before-and-after study in Mallorca found that numbers of Mallorcan midwife toad larvae increased after intensive, but not less intensive, removal of viperine snakes.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F830https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F830Wed, 28 Aug 2013 15:01:43 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Reduce pesticide, herbicide or fertilizer use One study in Taiwan found that halting pesticide use along with habitat management increased a population of Taipei frogs.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F832https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F832Wed, 28 Aug 2013 15:16:38 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Ponto-Caspian gammarids: Exposure to parasites A replicated, laboratory study in Canada found that an introduced parasitic mould reduced populations of an invasive shrimp.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1089https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1089Tue, 13 Oct 2015 13:30:53 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Primates: Change feeding times One replicated, controlled study in the USA found that when chimpanzees were fed on unpredictable schedules inactivity decreased.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1338https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1338Thu, 13 Oct 2016 08:46:57 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Parrot’s feather: Biological control using plant pathogens One study in South Africa found that parrot’s feather plants survived after being treated with a strain of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1601https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1601Fri, 20 Oct 2017 15:05:32 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Add topsoil (alongside planting/seeding) One randomized, replicated, paired, controlled study in the USA found that addition of topsoil alongside sowing of seed increased the biomass of grasses but reduced the biomass of forbs in comparison to addition of topsoil alone. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1857https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F1857Fri, 01 Dec 2017 14:27:24 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Install physical barriers to prevent trawling One study examined the effects of installing physical barriers to prevent trawling on subtidal benthic invertebrate populations. The study was in the Bay of Biscay (Spain).   COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Overall community composition (1 study): One before-and-after study in the Bay of Biscay found that one to four years after installing artificial reefs as physical barriers to prevent trawling invertebrate community composition changed. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Overall abundance (1 study): One before-and-after study in the Bay of Biscay found that one to four years after installing artificial reefs as physical barriers to prevent trawling overall invertebrate biomass increased. Echinoderm abundance (1 study): One before-and-after study in the Bay of Biscay found that one to four years after installing artificial reefs as physical barriers to prevent trawling the biomass of sea urchins and starfish increased. Molluscs abundance (1 study): One before-and-after study in the Bay of Biscay found that one to four years after installing artificial reefs as physical barriers to prevent trawling the biomass of gastropods (sea snails), of one species of cuttlefish, and of two species of octopus increased. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2112https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2112Tue, 22 Oct 2019 09:40:04 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Ban exports of hunting trophies One study evaluated the effects of banning exports of hunting trophies on wild mammals. This study was in Cameroon. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A before-and-after study in Cameroon found similar hippopotamus abundances before and after a ban on exporting hippopotamus hunting trophies. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2625https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2625Fri, 12 Jun 2020 10:54:25 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Close roads in defined seasons One study evaluated the effects on mammals of closing roads in defined seasons. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A site comparison study in the USA found that closing roads to traffic during the hunting season increased use of those areas by mule deer. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2626https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2626Fri, 12 Jun 2020 11:07:53 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Introduce organisms to control problematic plants: freshwater marshes One study evaluated the effects, on vegetation, of introducing organisms (other than large vertebrate grazers) to control problematic plants in freshwater marshes. The study was in the USA. It involved introducing plants to compete with problematic plants. VEGETATION COMMUNITY Overall richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in canarygrass-invaded wet meadows in the USA found that plots planted with upland vegetation (after mowing and applying herbicide) had greater overall plant species richness than untreated plots, after 1–3 growing seasons. VEGETATION ABUNDANCE Native/non-target abundance (1 study): One replicated, randomized, paired, controlled study in canarygrass-invaded wet meadows in the USA found that plots planted with upland vegetation (after mowing and applying herbicide) typically had greater cover of unplanted native vegetation than untreated plots, after 1–3 growing seasons. VEGETATION STRUCTURECollected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3128https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3128Mon, 05 Apr 2021 11:55:51 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Introduce organisms to control problematic plants: freshwater swamps One study evaluated the effects, on vegetation, of introducing organisms (other than large vertebrate grazers) to control problematic plants in freshwater swamps. The study was in the USA. It involved introducing plants to compete with problematic plants. VEGETATION COMMUNITY Overall richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled study in a petunia-invaded floodplain swamp in the USA found that plots planted with wetland herbs had greater overall plant species richness than unplanted plots, over the year after planting. Native/non-target richness/diversity (1 study): The same study found that planted plots had greater native plant species richness than unplanted plots, over the year after planting. VEGETATION ABUNDANCE   VEGETATION STRUCTURECollected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3130https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3130Mon, 05 Apr 2021 11:56:19 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Produce guidance for marsh or swamp conservation One study evaluated the effects, on vegetation or human behaviour, of producing guidance for marsh or swamp conservation. The study was in Sri Lanka. VEGETATION COMMUNITY   VEGETATION ABUNDANCE   VEGETATION STRUCTURE   OTHER Survival (1 study): One study of coastal sites in Sri Lanka found that planted mangrove propagules/seedlings had a higher survival rate in sites where published guidance had been consulted to select appropriate areas for planting, than in sites where guidance was not consulted. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3392https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3392Mon, 12 Apr 2021 12:07:08 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use marketing strategies to increase the value of marshes or swamps One study evaluated the effects, on vegetation or human behaviour, of using marketing strategies to increase the value of marshes or swamps. The study was in Vietnam. VEGETATION COMMUNITY   VEGETATION ABUNDANCE   VEGETATION STRUCTURE   OTHER Human behaviour (1 study): One before-and-after study in Vietnam reported that helping local people to sell handicrafts made from marsh plants in tourist markets (along with training to improve the quality of those products) increased their income. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3393https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3393Mon, 12 Apr 2021 12:09:17 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Lobby/campaign/demonstrate to protect marshes or swamps One study evaluated the effects, on vegetation or human behaviour, of lobbying/campaigning/demonstrating to protect marshes or swamps. The study was in Brazil. VEGETATION COMMUNITY   VEGETATION ABUNDANCE   VEGETATION STRUCTURE   OTHER Human behaviour (1 study): One study in Brazil reported after lobbying local and national governments, a wetland complex was designated as a sustainable development reserve (rather than being strictly protected) and a sustainable development research institute was created. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3394https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3394Mon, 12 Apr 2021 12:11:04 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance One study evaluated the effects on reptile populations of using signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance. This study was in Turkey. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Turkey found that in an area with signs where sea turtle nests were fenced, nests had higher hatching success than nests from areas with no fencing or signs. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3642https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3642Thu, 09 Dec 2021 15:26:40 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Stop using pesticides as seed dressings and sprays in flower beds and greenspace One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of stopping the use of pesticides as seed dressings and sprays in flower beds and greenspaces. The study was in France. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in France found that gardens where insecticides and herbicides were not used had a higher abundance of butterflies, but gardens where fungicides and snail pellets were not used had a lower abundance of butterflies BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3900https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3900Tue, 09 Aug 2022 15:03:07 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use low intensity lighting One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of using low intensity lighting. This study was in Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Behaviour change (1 study): One replicated, paired, controlled study in Germany found that fewer moths were attracted to low intensity lights (which also emitted a narrower range of yellow light with little UV) than to higher intensity lights (which also emitted broader spectra and included UV). Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3902https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3902Tue, 09 Aug 2022 15:09:27 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Use shielded “full cut-off” lights to remove outwards lighting One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of using shielded “full cut-off” lights to remove outwards lighting. This study was in Slovenia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Behaviour change (1 study): One replicated, paired, controlled study in Slovenia found that fewer individual moths and moth species were attracted to lights fitted with blinds to prevent light scattering (along with filters to remove shorter wavelengths) than to conventional lights without blinds or filters. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3904https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3904Tue, 09 Aug 2022 15:14:48 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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