Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or create habitat connectivity Six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring or creating habitat connectivity. Three studies were in the USA, two were in the UK and one was in Sweden. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (4 studies): Four studies (including one controlled, before-and-after study and one before-and-after study) in the USA and the UK found that restoring connectivity between lupine, bracken, pastures or prairie patches increased the abundance of Karner blue, high brown fritillary, small pearl-bordered fritillary, marsh fritillary and regal fritillary. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One site comparison study in Sweden reported that grassland strips providing nectar or shelter were each more likely to be used by one of four butterfly species than strips with no resources. One replicated, controlled study in the USA found that common buckeye and variegated fritillary butterflies were more likely to move between connected than unconnected habitat patches. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3934https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3934Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:42:44 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Maintain or create bare ground Four studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of maintaining or creating bare ground. Two studies were in the UK, and one was in each of the Netherlands and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, randomized, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that after 1–2 years, grass field margins disked to create bare ground had a similar species richness of both grassland butterflies and disturbance-tolerant butterflies to undisturbed margins. POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): One replicated, randomized, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that after 1–2 years, grass field margins disked to create bare ground had a higher abundance of disturbance-tolerant, but not grassland, butterflies to undisturbed margins. One replicated, site comparison study in the Netherlands found that Alcon large blue occupied a similar proportion of heathlands managed with sod cutting and unmanaged heathlands. However, the same study found that Alcon large blues were less likely to occur on heathlands where sod cutting and grazing were used together. One site comparison study in the UK found that a sand dune plot which had been stripped of turf and soil supported a translocated population of belted beauty moths, but a plot which had been strimmed and raked did not. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated study in the UK reported that 2-3 years after bare ground plots were created, some were used by caterpillars or adult moths of one or more of the grey carpet, lunar yellow underwing, forester and marbled clover, but none by the basil thyme case-bearer. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3935https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3935Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:53:35 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or create forest or woodland Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring or creating forest or woodland. Three studies were in the UK, two studies were in Brazil and one was in each of the USA, Cameroon, Mexico, Malaysia and Costa Rica. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Community composition (4 studies): Three site comparison studies (including two replicated studies) in Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil found that naturally generating or secondary forest had a different community composition of caterpillars6, geometrid and arctiine moths and butterflies to replanted forest, oil palm plantations, pasture or remnant primary forest. One site comparison study in Brazil found that a 54-year-old restored forest had a higher proportion of fruit-feeding forest butterfly species than 11–22-year-old restored forests, and a similar community composition to a remnant forest. Richness/diversity (6 studies): Three replicated, site comparison studies in Cameroon, Costa Rica and Brazil found that secondary forest had a similar species richness of butterflies and geometrid and arctiine moths to agroforestry plantations, pasture and remnant forest. Two of these studies also found that secondary forest had a greater species richness of butterflies and geometrid and arctiine moths than cropland or oil palm plantations. One of two site comparison studies (including one replicated study) in Brazil and Malaysia found that a 54-year-old restored forest had a lower species richness of fruit-feeding butterflies than 11–22-year-old restored forests. The other study found that 5–60-year-old restored forests had a greater species richness of butterflies than newly restored forests (<3-years-old), but restored forests had a lower species richness than primary forests. One site comparison study in Mexico found that a forest restored by natural regeneration had a similar diversity of caterpillars to a forest restored by planting. POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (6 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in Cameroon and Costa Rica found that secondary forest had a higher abundance of butterflies and geometrid and arctiine moths than cropland or oil palm plantations. One of these studies also found that secondary forest had a similar abundance of butterflies to coffee and cocoa agroforestry, and the other study also found that secondary forest had a lower abundance of geometrid and arctiine moths than primary forest. One site comparison study in Mexico found that a forest restored by natural regeneration had a similar abundance of caterpillars to a forest restored by planting. Two of three studies in the UK reported that where forest had been restored with coppicing, felling and ride management, the number of populations of high brown fritillary, pearl-bordered fritillary, wood white and grizzled skipper stayed the same or increased. The other study found that the number of heath fritillary colonies decreased after management. BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (3 studies): Two studies (including one paired study) in the USA and the UK found that in forest restored with selective logging or coppicing, felling and ride widening orange sulphur and heath fritillary butterflies, but not pine white butterflies, flew into restored areas more than unrestored areas and occupied a greater area than before the sites were restored. One replicated, before-and-after study in the UK reported that in forest restored with coppicing, felling and ride management, high brown fritillary presence was the same or higher than before restoration, and after restoration the butterflies were more likely to be present at sites with high brash and bracken litter coverage.  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3936https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3936Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:54:54 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Clear or open patches in forests Fourteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of clearing or opening patches in forests. Five studies were in the UK, two were in each of Finland and Japan one was in each of Sweden, the USA and Canada and the Czech Republic, and one was a review across Europe. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that wider woodland rides (and coppiced woodland) contained more unique species of macro-moth than standard width rides or mature forest. Richness/diversity (6 studies): Three replicated studies (including one controlled study, one site comparison study and one paired sites, controlled study) in the UK, Japan and the Czech Republic found that cleared patches in forests had a greater species richness of butterflies but a lower species richness of moths than unmanaged patches, coppiced woodland or closed canopy forest. One of these studies also found that the species richness of butterflies declined over the first three years after clearing. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Canada found that larger, but not smaller, cleared patches supported a higher species richness of butterflies than undisturbed forest. The other study found that both wider and standard width rides had a similar species richness of macro-moths to mature forest. One replicated, site comparison study in Japan found that cleared forest patches had a similar species richness of butterflies to semi-natural grassland, although six species were only observed in cleared patches, compared to 15 species only observed in grassland. POPULATION RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Abundance (10 studies): Five studies (including one replicated, controlled, before-and-after study, one replicated, controlled study and one replicated, site comparison study and two before-and-after studies) in the UK, Finland, Sweden and Japan found that cleared patches in forests, which were also managed with coppicing and grazing, had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and chequered blue, woodland brown, high brown fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary specifically, than before management, or than unmanaged or coppiced areas. One of these studies also found that the abundance of butterflies declined over the first three years after clearing. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Canada found that larger, but not smaller, cleared patches had a higher abundance of butterflies than undisturbed forest. The other study found that wider rides had a lower abundance of macro-moths than standard width rides or mature forest. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that patches cleared 2–4 years ago had a greater abundance of heath fritillary than patches cleared 7–11 years ago or patches in their first year after clearance. One study in Finland reported that, in an area with selected clearance of pines, a translocated population of baton blue butterflies increased in number over two years. One review across Europe reported that clearing small patches in forests benefitted 19 out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern. Survival (1 study): One study in Finland reported that, in an area with selected clearance of pines, a translocated population of baton blue survived for at least two years. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDY) Use (2 studies): One paired sites study in the USA found that orange sulphur butterflies, but not pine whites, flew into areas with selective clearance of pines more often than other areas. One replicated, before-and-after, site comparison study in the UK reported that in cleared patches in forests, which were also managed with cutting, grazing and ride widening, pearl-bordered fritillary and Duke of Burgundy breeding sites increased compared to before management. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3938https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3938Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:56:39 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Coppice woodland Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of coppicing woodland. Eight studies were in the UK and one was in each of France and Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and France found that coppiced woodland of different ages supported different communities of moths and butterflies. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that coppiced woodland contained more unique species of macro-moth than mature forest. Richness/diversity (4 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK found that coppiced woodland had a greater species richness of butterflies than unmanaged woodland. The other study found that coppiced woodland had a lower species richness of macro-moths than mature forest, and there was no change in species richness with the age of coppice. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and France found that woodland coppiced two years ago had a greater species richness of butterflies than woodland coppiced >15 years ago. The other study found that the species richness of moths was similar in woodland coppiced 1–4, 5–8 and 12–20 years ago. POPULATION RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Abundance (9 studies): Two of four site comparison studies (including three replicated studies and one before-and-after study) in the UK found that coppiced woodland (in one case also legally protected) had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and of heath fritillary specifically, than unmanaged woodland. One study found that pearl-bordered fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary populations were more likely to persist for up to 20 years in coppiced woodland (or woodland with young plantations) than in mature conifer woodland. The fourth study found that the abundance of macro-moths was lower in coppiced woodland than in mature forest, and there was no change in abundance with the age of coppice. Three of four replicated, site comparison studies (including one before-and-after study) in the UK, France and Germany found that the abundance of butterflies generally, heath fritillary specifically, and eastern eggar moth and scarce fritillary caterpillar webs, was higher in woodland coppiced two, two–four, five–seven or 12–15 years ago than in woodland coppiced 5–11 or >15 years ago. The fourth study reported that the abundance of moths was similar in woodland coppiced 1–4, 5–8 and 12–20 years ago. One before-and-after study in the UK reported that after coppicing, along with scrub control, tree felling and grazing, high brown fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary abundance increased. Reproductive success (1 study): One before-and-after study in the UK reported that pearl-bordered fritillaries released into coppiced woodland bred at least once. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3939https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3939Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:56:58 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Thin trees within forests Six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of thinning trees within forests and woodland. Three studies were in the USA and one was in each of Côte d’Ivoire, Finland and the Czech Republic. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One site comparison study in Côte d’Ivoire found that rarer species of fruit-feeding butterfly were less frequently caught in a forest managed by thinning than in an unmanaged, naturally regenerating forest. Richness/diversity (6 studies): Four studies (including two replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after studies) in the USA and Finland found that one, two or four years after management, coniferous woodland which had been thinned, along with either prescribed burning, mulching or nearby felling, had a greater species richness of butterflies, or butterflies, diurnal moths and bumblebees combined, than either unmanaged woodland or before management. One site comparison study in Côte d’Ivoire found that a forest managed by thinning had a similar species richness and diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies to an unmanaged, naturally regenerating forest. One replicated, paired sites, controlled study in the Czech Republic found that partially-cleared forest plots had higher butterfly but lower moth species richness than plots of closed-canopy forest. POPULATION RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Abundance (5 studies): Four studies (including two replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after studies) in the USA and Finland found that one, two or four years after management, coniferous woodland which had been thinned, along with either prescribed burning, mulching or nearby felling, had a higher abundance of all butterflies, or specialist butterflies, than either unmanaged woodland or before management. One site comparison study in Côte d’Ivoire found that a forest managed by thinning had a similar abundance of fruit-feeding butterflies to an unmanaged, naturally regenerating forest. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3940https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3940Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:57:16 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or create grassland/savannas Six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring or creating grassland or savanna. Three studies were in the USA, two were in the UK, and one was in Italy. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Italy found that created semi-natural grasslands had a greater diversity of butterflies than adjacent conifer forests, but a lower diversity than species-rich pastures. POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (4 studies): Two site comparison studies (including one replicated, paired study) in Italy and the USA found that created semi-natural grasslands and restored grasslands and oak barrens had a higher abundance of butterflies and regal fritillaries than adjacent conifer forests, species-rich pastures or unmanaged or remnant prairies. One site comparison study in the USA found that prairies restored 5–10 years ago by seeding with native species, mowing, and weeding or applying herbicide, had a greater abundance of Fender’s blue eggs than a prairie restored 1–2 years ago, and a similar abundance to remnant prairies. One study in the USA reported that restored prairie supported a translocated population of regal fritillaries for at least three years after restoration. BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One of two replicated, before-and-after studies in the UK reported that following grassland restoration the area occupied by small pearl-bordered fritilliaries increased. The other study reported that following grassland restoration the number of marsh fritillary populations at each site remained the same or increased. Behaviour change (1 study): One site comparison study in the USA found that Fender’s blue butterflies spent a similar proportion of time laying eggs in prairies restored 5–10 years ago by seeding with nectar species, mowing, and weeding or applying herbicide, and in remnant prairies. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3943https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3943Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:58:03 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or create heathland/shrubland Three studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring or creating heathland or shrubland. Two studies were in the UK and one was in the Netherlands. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in the UK found that the moth community on restored moorland was more similar to that on established heather moorland than on degraded moorland. Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the Netherlands found that in heathlands restored by topsoil removal butterfly species richness was lower than in the surrounding landscape. POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One replicated, site comparison study in the Netherlands found that in heathlands restored by topsoil removal butterfly species richness was lower than in the surrounding landscape but at restored sites abundance was higher in areas where heather litter had also been spread than where it had not. One study in the UK reported that a population of silver-studded blue butterflies released into a site which was managed for heathland restoration increased in abundance over 11 years. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One study in the UK reported that a population of silver-studded blue butterflies released into a site where heathland was being restored expanded its range beyond its initial release area. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3946https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3946Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:59:00 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Manage heathland by cutting Three studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of managing heathland by cutting. Two studies were in the USA1,2 and one was in the UK3. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): One site comparison study in the USA2 found that a pine barren managed for 13 years by mechanical cutting had a higher abundance of Karner blue butterflies than barrens managed by rotational burning or unburned refuges. One before-and-after study in the USA1 found that the abundance of five butterfly species did not change after the management of a pine barren was changed from rotational burning to unintensive cutting. One before-and-after study in the UK3 reported that the abundance of high brown fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary increased after scrub cutting, along with tree felling, coppicing and grazing. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3947https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3947Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:59:19 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Restore or create peatland Six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of restoring or creating peatland. Two studies were in each of Finland and the UK, and one was in each of the Netherlands and Ireland. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Finland found that mires restored by filling ditches and cutting trees had a moth community which was intermediate between drained and pristine mires. Richness/diversity (2 studies): One replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in Finland found that after mires were restored by raising the water table and removing large trees, they had a higher species richness of mire specialist butterflies than before restoration or than unrestored, drained mires, and a similar species richness to pristine mires. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Ireland reported that protected bogs re-wetted by blocking drains had a similar species richness of moths to unrestored and unprotected bogs. POPULATION RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Abundance (4 studies): Two before-and-after studies (including one replicated, paired, controlled study) in the UK and Finland found that bogs re-wetted by blocking drains and mires restored by raising the water table and removing large trees had a higher abundance of rosy marsh moth caterpillars and mire specialist butterflies than before restoration or than unrestored mires, and a similar abundance to pristine mires. Two replicated, paired, site comparison studies in Finland and Ireland found that mires restored by filling ditches and cutting trees and bogs restored by blocking drains (along with legal protection) had mixed effects on moth abundance compared to unrestored sites depending on species. Survival (1 study): One replicated study in the UK found that where water levels had risen due to peatland restoration, large heath butterfly caterpillars had lower winter survival than in areas where water levels had not risen. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the Netherlands found that wet heathland where water levels had been recently raised were less frequently occupied by Alcon large blue than sites where the water level had not been raised. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3948https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3948Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:59:56 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cease mowing on grassland to allow early succession Sixteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of ceasing mowing on grassland to allow early succession. Three studies were in Germany, two were in each of the USA, Spain and the Czech Republic, and one was in each of Switzerland, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Japan, Russia and Italy. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (8 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Czech Republic and Germany found that the community composition of butterflies and moths in grasslands which had been abandoned for >5 years or an unspecified length of time was similar to grasslands managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in Spain found that after mowing and grazing was abandoned, over 6 years the butterfly community became dominated by generalist species, and species with fewer generations/year. Richness/diversity (7 studies): Five of seven replicated, site comparison studies in Germany, Poland, Japan, the Czech Republic, Russia and Italy found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 3–13 years, 10–20 years or an unspecified length of time, had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths or all moths to grasslands managed by annual or unspecified frequency mowing, or mown within the last three years (in two studies mowing and grazing were not distinguished). One of these studies also found that grasslands abandoned for more than 50 years had lower species richness than grasslands mowed annually to up to 20 years ago, and another found that grasslands abandoned for 6–13 years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grasslands managed by traditional rotational mowing and burning. One of the studies found that meadows not cut all summer had a higher species richness of butterflies than meadows cut 1–3 times/summer. The other study found that grasslands abandoned for at least 5–20 years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grasslands managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). POPULATION RESPONSE (14 STUDIES) Abundance (14 studies): Four replicated studies (including one randomized, paired, controlled study and three site comparison studies) in Germany, Spain, Slovakia and Hungary found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >1–20 years had a lower abundance of all butterflies or some species of butterfly and caterpillars, than grasslands managed by mowing once or twice per year (in two studies mowing and grazing were not distinguished). Four replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in Germany, the Czech Republic, Russia and Italy found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >3 years, were temporarily abandoned, or were uncut all summer, had a higher abundance of all butterflies, 11 species of butterfly, Scotch argus adults and meadow neb moth caterpillars, than grasslands managed by mowing annually, 1–3 times/summer, or within the last three years. Two replicated studies (including one controlled, before-and-after study and one site comparison study) in Spain and Germany found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 1–6 years or an unspecified time period had a higher abundance of woodland and hedgerow butterflies and burnet moths, but a lower abundance of grassland or farmland species, than grasslands managed by mowing and/or grazing (results not distinguished). One of these studies also found that silver-studded blue went extinct in some abandoned meadows. Three replicated, site comparison studies in the USA and Poland found that in grasslands which had been abandoned for many years or 10 to over 50 years before abundance was mixed depending on butterfly species compared to grasslands managed by grazing or mowing. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that grasslands which had been abandoned for around six years had a similar abundance of heath fritillary adults and caterpillars to grasslands managed by annual mowing, but that grasslands abandoned for >25 years had a lower abundance of adults and no caterpillars. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Germany found that grassland which had been abandoned for >5 years had a similar occurrence of hoary bell moth caterpillars to grassland managed by mowing. One replicated, site comparison study in Spain found that grizzled skipper and painted lady occurred less frequently, but small pearl-bordered fritillary occurred more frequently, in meadows which had been abandoned for at least 1–2 years than in meadows managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3957https%3A%2F%2Fwww.conservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3957Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:36:48 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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