Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Exclude domestic animals or wild hogs by fencing Three replicated, site comparison studies in the USA found that excluding livestock from streams or ponds did not increase numbers of amphibian species or overall abundance, but did increase larval abundance and abundance of green frog metamorphs. Two studies found that the abundance of green frogs and/or American toads was higher with grazing. One randomized, replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that excluding cattle from ponds did not increase numbers of eggs or larval survival of Columbia spotted frogs. One before-and-after study in the UK found that pond restoration that included livestock exclusion increased pond use by breeding natterjack toads. Collected, 17 Jul 2013 10:35:16 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Manage ditches One controlled, before-and-after study in the UK found that managing ditches increased common toad numbers. One replicated, site comparison study in the Netherlands found that numbers of amphibian species and abundance was significantly higher in ditches managed under agri-environment schemes compared to those managed conventionally.  Collected, 18 Jul 2013 16:10:56 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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