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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Remove or control viperine snakes Amphibian Conservation

Key messages

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  • One before-and-after study in Mallorca found that numbers of Mallorcan midwife toad larvae increased after intensive, but not less intensive, removal of viperine snakes.


Supporting evidence from individual studies


A before-and-after study in 1991–2002 of Mallorcan midwife toads Alytes muletensis in Mallorca (Román 2003) found that abundance increased at one of two sites after removal of viperine snakes Natrix maura. At the site with intensive control over three years, no snakes were seen from 1997 and larval toad counts increased from 1,300 in 1991 to 2,200 in 1999. Control was not considered successful by the authors at the second site due to the large snake population and more open habitat. Viperine snakes were controlled by capturing intensive one site in 1991–1993 and by capturing less intensively at the second site in 2002.


Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Smith, R.K., Meredith, H. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Amphibian Conservation. Pages 9-65 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.