Prevent pollution from agricultural lands or sewage treatment facilities entering watercourses
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
Agricultural intensification has resulted in increased use of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides. Studies have found a relationship between proximity to agricultural lands with high levels of pesticide and fertilizer use and amphibian malformations and population declines (Ouellet et al. 1997; Bishop et al. 1999; Davidson 2004; Taylor et al. 2005). As well as direct effects, pollutants such as fertilizers can stimulate algal growth which can have significant effects on aquatic habitats.
Other studies that investigated methods to reduce pollution levels in aquatic habitats in agricultural landscapes are described in ‘Create walls or barriers to exclude pollutants’ and ‘Reduce pesticide, herbicide or fertilizer use’.
Bishop C.A., Mahony N.A., Struger J., Ng P. & Pettit K.E. (1999) Anuran development, density and diversity in relation to agricultural activity in the Holland River watershed, Ontario, Canada (1990–1992). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 57, 21–43.
Davidson C. (2004) Declining downwind: amphibian population declines in California and historical pesticide use. Ecological Applications, 14, 1892–1902.
Ouellet M., Bonin J., Rodrigue J., Desgranges J.L. & Lair S. (1997) Hindlimb deformities (ectromelia, ectrodactyly) in free-living anurans from agricultural habitats. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 33, 95–104.
Taylor B., Skelly D., Demarchis L.K., Slade M.D., Galusha D. & Rabinowitz P.M. (2005) Proximity to pollution sources and risk of amphibian limb malformation. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 1497–1501.