Action: Remove or control invasive cane toads
Key messagesRead our guidance on Key messages before continuing
- We found no evidence for the effects of removing or controlling invasive cane toads on amphibian populations.
'No evidence' for an action means we have not yet found any studies that directly and quantitatively tested this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.
Cane toads Bufo marinus have been introduced to many places including Australia and Pacific and Caribbean islands. The species can have significant effects on native species, particularly those that prey on the cane toads as they contain a lethal toxin. They may also affect native amphibians through competition at the tadpole stage and through predation of eggs or tadpoles.
There is additional literature that is not included here examining the success of controlling cane toads, which may be undertaken for the conservation of a range of taxa including amphibians (e.g. Nakajima et al. 2005; Shanmuganathan et al. 2010; Ward-Fear et al. 2010; Wingate 2011).
Nakajima T., Toda M., Aoki M. & Tatara M. (2005) The project for control of the cane toad Bufo marinus on Iriomote Island, Okinawa prefecture. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society, 2005, 179–186.
Shanmuganathan T., Pallister J., Doody S., McCallum H., Robinson T., Sheppard A., Hardy C., Halliday D., Venables D., Voysey R., Strive T., Hinds L. & Hyatt A. (2010) Biological control of the cane toad in Australia: A review. Animal Conservation Biology, 13, 16–23.
Ward-Fear G., Brown G.P. & Shine R. (2010) Using a native predator (the meat ant, Iridomyrmex reburrus) to reduce the abundance of an invasive species (the cane toad, Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 273–280.
Wingate D.B. (2011) The successful elimination of cane toads, Bufo marinus, from an island with breeding habitat off Bermuda. Biological Invasions, 13, 1487–1492.