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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Use scaring devices (eg. gas guns) and other deterrents to reduce persecution of native species Farmland Conservation

Key messages

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Supporting evidence from individual studies


A replicated, controlled study from May to November 1997 of four grassland fields and one cultivated field with willow Salix spp. stools (coppiced willow stumps) in central Germany (Wölfel 1981) found that phosphorescent tape was more effective than normal yellow tape in deterring deer (Cervidae), but had no effect on wild boar Sus scrofa or brown hare Lepus europaeus. At the four grazing sites, areas surrounded by phosphorescent tape were avoided by red deer Cervus elaphus for four months and roe deer Capreolus capreolus for three weeks. Red deer entered areas fenced with yellow non-phosphorescent tape after one week and roe deer after just one day. All deer species kept out of an area of willow fenced with phosphorescent strips for three weeks, after that roe deer (but no red deer) tracks were found within the area. Soft PVC tape (40 cm-wide) was attached to 1.3 m iron posts at a height of 1 m. Four game grazing fields each had two 300 m2 areas fenced off using phosphorescent strips and two with non-phosphorescent tape. After two months, all four areas were mowed and control and experimental fields swapped. Mammal presence was assessed using droppings and tracks.


Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Dicks, L.V., Ashpole, J.E., Dänhardt, J., James, K., Jönsson, A., Randall, N., Showler, D.A., Smith, R.K., Turpie, S., Williams D.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Farmland Conservation Pages 291-330 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.