Remove, control or exclude invertebrate herbivores

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
    not assessed
  • Certainty
    not assessed
  • Harms
    not assessed

Study locations

Key messages

  • One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of removing, controlling or excluding invertebrate herbivores. The study was in the UK.



  • Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that at sites fenced to exclude grazing animals there was a higher density of pearl-bordered fritillary butterflies than at unfenced sites.


About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A replicated, site comparison study in 1995–1998 in 28 woodland sites in Argyll, UK (Feber et al 2011) found that at sites fenced to exclude grazing animals there was a higher density of pearl-bordered fritillary butterflies Boloria Euphrosyne than at unfenced sites. In sites within woodland that were fenced to exclude deer there was a higher density of pearl-bordered fritillaries (6.8 butterflies/hectare) than at sites where deer were not excluded (3.7 butterflies/ha). In woodland edge sites where fencing excluded deer, there was a higher density of pearl-bordered fritillaries (10.7 butterflies/ha) than where deer were not excluded and sheep were grazing (0.1 butterflies/ha). In May and June 1998 mark-release-recapture surveys of pearl-bordered fritillaries were conducted at the 28 sites of woodland and woodland edge in Lochawe. Within this area were two woods designated in 1995–1996 under the Woodland Grant Scheme and fenced to exclude deer (6 sampling sites in woodland, 12 at woodland edge). These were compared to other woodland sites without deer fencing (3 sites) and woodland edge sites without fencing which were also sheep grazed (7 sites).

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Bladon A.J., Bladon, E. K., Smith R.K. & Sutherland W.J. (2023) Butterfly and Moth Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for butterflies and moths. Conservation Evidence Series Synopsis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Butterfly and Moth Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Butterfly and Moth Conservation
Butterfly and Moth Conservation

Butterfly and Moth Conservation - Published 2023

Butterfly and Moth Synopsis

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