Lobby/campaign/demonstrate to protect marshes or swamps
Overall effectiveness category Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)
Number of studies: 1
Background information and definitions
Lobbying or peaceful demonstrations could put pressure on projects that threaten marshes or swamps, preventing them from occurring or minimizing their impact. Specific actions include demonstrating on site, writing letters and social media campaigns.
To be summarized as evidence for this action, studies must involve campaigns targeted at organizations such as businesses or governments. Studies must provide some detail about what the lobbying, campaigning or demonstrating involved in practice. For example, Wetlands International (2014) report that their “advocacy influence” has led to the alteration or abandonment of several projects that could have impacted marshes or swamps (e.g. delay and redesign of the Fomi Dam, Upper Niger River, and consideration of marsh ecosystems in Shell’s oil and gas operations in Iraq). We have not summarized these examples as evidence because there is little detail about the methods used in their advocacy.
To be clear, studies would be summarized as evidence for this action if the lobbying is substantially related to marshes and swamps, even if it involves other wetland habitats (e.g. peatlands), aquatic habitats (e.g. rivers and lakes) or upland habitats (e.g. forests).
Related actions: Raise public awareness about marshes or swamps.
Wetlands International (2014) Our Achievements 2011–2013. Available at https://www.wetlands.org/download/5101/. Accessed 9 February 2020.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A study in 2008 of a wetland complex in northwest Brazil (Sellamuttu et al. 2008) reported that following lobbying of national and local governments in the 1990s, the area was designated as a sustainable development reserve (in 1996) and a new research institute for sustainable development was created (in 1999). The sustainable development reserve designation, which allowed sustainable use of resources by local and indigenous people, was a relaxation of former strict protection. Methods: The Mamirauá wetlands are a complex of seasonally flooded forest, rivers and lakes. In the early 1990s, they were strictly protected but were faced with pressure from commercial loggers and hunters. From 1992, a conservation group lobbied the Brazilian Government to allow sustainable use of the wetlands by local people. This lobbying was backed by biological and socioeconomic studies, and supported by national and international media campaigns. The conservation group leader also personally lobbied the State Governor, with arguments about political benefits of allowing sustainable use.Study and other actions tested
Referenced paperSellamuttu S.S., de Silva S., Khoa S.N. & Samarakoon J. (2008) Good practices and lessons learned in integrating ecosystem conservation and poverty reduction objectives. Wetlands International report, International Water Management Institute, Colombo & Wetlands International, Wageningen.