Create mounds or hollows: brackish/saline swamps

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • One study evaluated the effects, on vegetation, of creating mounds or hollows in brackish/saline swamps. The study was in Indonesia.




  • Tree/shrub abundance (1 study): One study in Indonesia simply reported the number of mangrove tree seedlings that had colonized a pile of branches placed in a disused aquaculture pond, around seven months after depositing the branches (and releasing mangrove propagules).


About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A study in 2013–2014 in a disused aquaculture pond in South Sulawesi, Indonesia (Oh et al. 2017) reported that approximately seven months after depositing a mound of branches (and releasing mangrove propagules), the mound had been colonized by 29 mangrove tree seedlings. Methods: In November 2013, a 770-m2 pile of branches was added to a disused aquaculture pond to create a raised mound (extending above the range of elevations colonized by mangroves in other ponds). Walls within the wider pond system were breached to improve tidal exchange. In December 2013, >218,000 propagules (of >7 species) were added to the ponds at high tide. Seedlings growing in the pile of branches were counted in June 2014.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Taylor N.G., Grillas P., Smith R.K. & Sutherland W.J. (2021) Marsh and Swamp Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions to Conserve Marsh and Swamp Vegetation. Conservation Evidence Series Synopses. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Marsh and Swamp Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Marsh and Swamp Conservation
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Marsh and Swamp Conservation - Published 2021

Marsh and Swamp Synopsis

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