Use herbicide to maintain or restore disturbance: brackish/salt marshes
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
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Background information and definitions
Disturbance can clear dominant plants, maintain light availability and control nutrient levels – and may maintain vegetation in a desirable and/or species-rich state (Hall et al. 2008; Middleton 2013). Therefore, conservationists sometimes want to actively restore disturbance where it has ceased, or maintain disturbance at a site where it would otherwise be lost. Applying herbicide might be one way to do this.
Bear in mind that the effects of herbicide might be highly dependent on the chemical used, how it is applied and local site conditions (e.g. nutrient availability, water levels, presence/density of wild herbivores) (Tobias et al. 2016).
Caution: In many herbicides, the active chemicals are not specific to the problematic species so can cause collateral damage to desirable species. Relying on herbicides as the only tool to manage problematic plants can lead to the development of herbicide resistance in future generations (Powles et al. 1997). Herbicides can have severe negative side effects on biodiversity, the environment and human health (Pimentel et al. 1992). Accordingly, herbicide use – particularly in or near wetlands or water bodies – is limited in many countries.
Related actions: Use herbicide to control problematic plants, whose success is not linked to a change in disturbance regime.
Hall S.J., Lindig-Cisneros R. & Zedler J.B. (2008) Does harvesting sustain plant diversity in Central Mexican wetlands? Wetlands, 28, 776–792.
Middleton B.A. (2013) Rediscovering traditional vegetation management in preserves: trading experiences between cultures and continents. Biological Conservation, 158, 750–760.
Pimentel D., Acquay H., Biltonen M., Rice P., Silva M., Nelson J., Lipner V., Giordano S., Horowitz A. & D’Amore M. (1992) Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use. BioScience, 42, 750–760.
Powles S.B., Preston C., Bryan I.B. & Jutsum A.R. (1997) Herbicide resistance: impact and management. Advances in Agronomy, 58, 57–93.
Tobias V.D., Block G. & Laca E.A. (2016) Controlling perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in a brackish tidal marsh. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 24, 411–418.
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This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:Marsh and Swamp Conservation
Marsh and Swamp Conservation - Published 2021
Marsh and Swamp Synopsis