Introduce regulations for flying aircraft over marine and freshwater mammals
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
Marine and freshwater mammals may be disturbed by aircraft flying overhead, such as helicopters and small airplanes (Richardson et al. 1997, Patenaude et al. 2006). Underwater noise pollution from commercial passenger airplanes is also likely to be audible to marine mammals and may be of conservation concern for species inhabiting coastal waters close to airports (Erbe et al. 2018). This intervention involves introducing regulations for flying aircraft over marine and freshwater mammals to reduce disturbance. This may include setting limits on minimum altitude and the duration or number of flights over individual mammal groups.
For an intervention that relates to flying drones over marine and freshwater mammals, see Introduce regulations for flying drones over marine and freshwater mammals.
Erbe C., Williams R., Parsons M., Parsons S.K., Hendrawan I.G. & Dewantama I.M.I. (2018) Underwater noise from airplanes: An overlooked source of ocean noise. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 656–661.
Patenaude N.J., Richardson W.J., Smultea M.A., Koski W.R., Miller G.W., Würsig B. & GReene JR. C.R. (2002) Aircraft sound and disturbance to bowhead and beluga whales during spring migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Marine Mammal Science, 18, 309–335.
Richardson W.J. & Würsig B. (1997) Influences of man‐made noise and other human actions on cetacean behaviour. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 29, 183–209.