Action Synopsis: Bird Conservation About Actions

Use raptor models to deter birds and so reduce incidental mortality

How is the evidence assessed?

Study locations

Key messages

A single paired sites study in Spain found no evidence that raptor models were effective in deterring birds from crossing power lines and may even have attracted some species to the area.


About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A controlled paired sites study in two sites in Andalusia, Spain (Janss et al. 1999), found no effect of raptor models (one golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos and two Accipiter spp.) on the number of flocks crossing power lines in either migration or non-migration areas. In the migration area south of Cadiz, there was no difference in the number of flocks of birds coming within 100 m of the power lines, although there was a higher proportion of raptors in the section with the eagle model (42% of 119 records were raptors vs. 21% of 43 records) and flocks flew above 20 m more frequently in the section with the eagle model. In the non-migration area (the Coto Doñana National Park), more flocks and a higher proportion of raptors, waterfowl and corvids were seen in sections near the eagle model, compared with control sections (the Accipiter models were not tested in the park).

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Williams, D.R., Child, M.F., Dicks, L.V., Ockendon, N., Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Walsh, J.C., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Bird Conservation. Pages 137-281 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2020. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.


Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

All the journals searched for all synopses

Bird Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Bird Conservation
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What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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