Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Modify vegetation along railways to reduce collisions by reducing attractiveness to mammals Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Key messages

Read our guidance on Key messages before continuing

  • Two studies evaluated the effects of modifying vegetation along railways to reduce collisions by reducing attractiveness to wildlife. Both studies were in Norway.



  • Survival (2 studies): Two site comparison studies in Norway found that clearing vegetation from alongside railways reduced moose-train collisions.


Supporting evidence from individual studies


A before-and-after study, site comparison study in 1980–1988 along a railway through boreal forest in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway (Jaren et al. 1991) found that vegetation removal alongside the railway reduced moose Alces alces deaths. Fewer moose were killed by trains after vegetation clearance (22 moose) than before (87 moose). Numbers also fell along uncleared sections but to a lesser extent with 27 killed after vegetation was cleared in experimental sections compared to 47 before. Vegetation clearance was estimated to be cost effective if more than 0.28 moose/km/year were expected to be killed in absence of clearance. Moose deaths were recorded along a 61-km section of railway in April–November of 1980–1988. In 1984, two sections with the highest casualties (totalling 22 km), had all bushes and trees removed from 20 m either side of the railway and all those <4 m high removed from a further 10 m width. Additional vegetation was removed at bends and on areas of browse attractive to moose. In 1986, cleared areas were sprayed with herbicide (Roundup) to reduce vegetation re-growth.


A site comparison study in 1985–2003 along a railway through forest in Hedmark County, Norway (Andreassen et al. 2005) found that vegetation clearance alongside the railway reduced moose Alces alces collisions with trains. Fewer moose were killed after clearance (1.3/km/year) than before (2.6/km/year). Providing feeding stations away from the railway during winter in addition to clearing vegetation alongside the railway did not significantly further reduce collisions (5% reduction) compared to clearing vegetation alone. Before clearance, there were 2.5 times more moose killed/km/year within treatment sections compared to comparison sections. Numbers killed/km in treatment sections were fairly constant but casualties tended to increase in comparison sections over the study period (see paper for details). Eight forest clearings (1–14 km long) were established from 1990 to 2002 along a 100-km-long railway section. Vegetation >30 cm high was cut each year from alongside the railway. Sections without treatments were monitored as comparison sites (49 km). Moose-train collisions were recorded from July 1985–April 2003.

Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.