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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Use noise aversive conditioning to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Key messages

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  • One study evaluated the effects of using noise aversive conditioning to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in the USA.





  • Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A replicated, controlled study in USA found that noise aversive conditioning reduced bait consumption by white-tailed deer.

Supporting evidence from individual studies


A replicated, controlled study in 2001 on a pasture site in Georgia, USA (Gallagher & Prince 2003) found that attempts to condition white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus to avoid food when a metronome was played, by initially playing the sound alongside an electric wire deterrent, reduced, but did not eliminate, consumption of the food. With the metronome active but the electric wire deactivated, corn consumption (1.4–2.0 kg/day) was generally lower than at unprotected feeders (2.2 kg/day) but was higher than when both the metronome and electric wire deterrent were active (0–0.1 kg/day). Deer were studied in three 13-ha pasture plots, each containing two feeders, 6.5 m apart. Feeders comprised a plastic tray on a toolbox. At one feeder in each plot, the box housed an electric fence charger and an electronic metronome. An electric fence wire on each tray was likely to be touched by deer accessing corn. Each feeder was supplied with 2.3 kg/day of whole corn. Unconsumed corn was weighed and removed. Data were collected during six 5-day periods in April–May 2001. During the first, third and fifth periods, electric chargers and metronomes were activated. In alternate periods, only metronomes remained active.

Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.