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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Deter predation of livestock by mammals by having people close by to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Key messages

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  • One study evaluated the effects of deterring predation of livestock by mammals by having people close by to reduce human-wildlife conflict. This study was in Kenya.





  • Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): One study in Kenya recorded fewer attacks by predators on livestock in bomas when people were also present but the presence of people did not reduce predator attacks on grazing herds.

Supporting evidence from individual studies


A study in 2001–2005 of bushland and savanna across Laikipia and neighbouring districts, Kenya (Woodroffe et al. 2007) found that when livestock in bomas were accompanied by people, fewer animals were attacked by carnivores, but there was no similar effect for grazing herds. Livestock kept in bomas overnight were less likely to be attacked when more herders were present. Presence of herders did not reduce the risk of attack for herds grazing away from bomas in the daytime (results presented as odds ratios). The 502 grazing herds were accompanied by an average of 2.1 herders. At 491 bomas, an average of 11.3 people were present. The study documented 105 attacks by spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta, 96 by leopards Panthera pardus, 44 by African wild dogs Lycaon pictus, 35 by lions Panthera leo and 19 by cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus. From January 2001 to June 2005, eighteen local staff verified reports of livestock lost to predation and gathered data on animal husbandry practices used. Attacked herds or bomas were compared to nearby herds (median 656 m away) or bomas (median 323 m away) that had not been attacked.

Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.