Treat mammals to reduce conflict caused by disease transmission to humans

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • One study evaluated the effects of treating mammals to reduce conflict caused by disease transmission to humans. This study was in Germany.





  • Human-wildlife conflict (1 study): A controlled, before-and-after study in Germany found that following a worming programme, proportions of red foxes infested with small fox tapeworm fell.

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A controlled, before-and-after study from 2005–2007 in rural and urban areas in Starnberg, Germany (König et al. 2008) found that following a worming programme, proportions of red foxes Vulpes vulpes infested with small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multicularis decreased. From four to 15 months after worming, a lower proportion of foxes (0.8%) was infested with tapeworms than was infested in untreated areas (33%). Before worming, the proportion infested was similar in areas to be treated (35%) and not treated (43%). From December 2005–March 2007, fox baits (Droncit®) laced with 50 mg of praziquantel were distributed by air in agricultural and recreational areas and by hand in towns and villages. Baits were distributed once every four weeks, over a 213-km2 area, at a density of 50 baits/km2. Additional bait was left around 100 den sites in January–February and June–August. No bait was distributed in a 238-km2 control area. Tapeworm infestation levels were diagnosed in dissected foxes killed by hunters (133 before baiting and 123 after baiting). Small fox tapeworm causes alveolar echinococcosis in humans.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation - Published 2020

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

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