Pay monetary compensation for habitat damage remediation
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
Following damages to habitats and natural resources, for instance from pollution or physical disturbances, the guilty parties could be required to pay monetary compensation (Price et al. 2012). Such compensations can be direct monetary ‘fines’ for damages, payments towards the costs of environmental assessments, or reimbursement for remediation, restoration or offsetting actions. For instance, following the massive oil spill of 1991, a multibillion-dollar compensation was paid to several Gulf States for damages and restoration projects (Payne & Sand 2011; Price et al. 2012). Monetary compensation can benefit subtidal benthic invertebrates when used for remediation, restoration or offsetting projects (Jones et al. 2012).
Evidence related to offsetting projects for lost habitats, which can be undertaken through monetary compensation, are summarised under “Habitat restoration and creation – Offset habitat loss from human activity by restoring or creating habitats elsewhere”.
Jones D.A., Nithyanandan M. & Williams I. (2012) Sabah Al-Ahmad Sea City Kuwait: development of a sustainable manmade coastal ecsystem in a saline desert. Aquatic Ecosystem Health Management, 15, 82–90.
Payne C. & Sand P. (Eds.) (2011) Gulf War Reparations and the UN Compensation Commission Environmental Liability. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Price A.R.G., Donlan M.C., Sheppard C.R.C. & Munawar M. (2012) Environmental rejuvenation of the Gulf by compensation and restoration. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 15, 7–13.