Use antifouling coatings on the surfaces of vessels and anthropogenic structures
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
Non-native, invasive and other problematic species can impact on native subtidal benthic invertebrate species through predation, competition for resources (food & space), contamination (for pathogens and diseases), or hybridization (through reproduction) (Molnar et al. 2008; Bishop et al. 2010). Non-native species can become attached to the hard surfaces of vessels and anthropogenic structures, such as ship hull, anchors and chains, oil rigs, wind farms, pontoons, or buoys, which then act as “stepping stones” for their introduction into new environments (Adams et al. 2014; Bulleri & Airoldi 2005; Mineur et al. 2012). Using antifouling coating can potentially prevent the attachment of non-native (and native) species, hence reduce the risk of introduction to new location and the risk non-native species pose to native subtidal benthic invertebrates.
Evidence for other interventions related to antifouling coatings are summarised under “Threat: Invasive and other problematic species, genes and diseases – Use non-toxic antifouling coatings on surfaces” and “Restrict the use of tributyltin or other toxic antifouling coatings”.
Adams T.P., Miller R.G., Aleynik D. & Burrows M.T. (2014) Offshore marine renewable energy devices as stepping stones across biogeographical boundaries. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 330–338.
Bulleri F. & Airoldi L. (2005) Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non‐indigenous green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, in the north Adriatic Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 1063–1072.
Bishop M.J., Krassoi F.R., McPherson R.G., Brown K.R., Summerhayes S.A., Wilkie E.M. & O’Connor W.A. (2010) Change in wild-oyster assemblages of Port Stephens, NSW, Australia, since commencement of non-native Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture. Marine and Freshwater Research, 61, 714–723.
Mineur F., Cook E.J., Minchin D., Bohn K., MacLeod A. & Maggs C.A. (2012) Changing coasts: Marine aliens and artificial structures. Pages 198–243 in: Oceanography and Marine Biology. CRC Press.
Molnar J.L., Gamboa R.L., Revenga C. & Spalding M.D. (2008) Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 485–492.