Reduce and/or eradicate aquaculture escapees in the wild
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
The expanding aquaculture industry has led to the accidental introduction of non-native and other problematic species into the wild marine environment, referred to as escapees (Arechavaia-Lopez et al. 2013; Bax et al. 2003; Manchester & Bullock, 2000). There, they can impact on native subtidal benthic invertebrate species through predation, competition for resources (food & space), or hybridization (through reproduction) (Bishop et al. 2010). Managing the spread of escapees, either by reducing their populations or trying to eradicate them when feasible (Herbert et al. 2016), can potentially reduce the threat level and associated risks on native subtidal benthic invertebrate species. Additionally, revising the existing spacing systems for farms, using innovative siting systems, and improving cage technologies and operational routines, could be effective means of reducing the likelihood of escapees (Arechavaia-Lopez et al. 2013)
Arechavaia-Lopez P., Sanchez-Jerez P., Bayle-Sempere J.T., Uglem I. & Mladineo I. (2013) Reared fish. Farmed escapees and wild fish stockes – a triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 3, 153–161.
Bax N., Williamson A., Aguero M., Gonzalez E. & Geeves W. (2003) Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity. Marine Policy, 27, 313–323.
Bishop M.J., Krassoi F.R., McPherson R.G., Brown K.R., Summerhayes S.A., Wilkie E.M. & O’Connor W.A. (2010) Change in wild-oyster assemblages of Port Stephens, NSW, Australia, since commencement of non-native Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture. Marine and Freshwater Research, 61, 714–723.
Herbert R.J., Humphreys J., Davies C.J., Roberts C., Fletcher S. & Crowe T.P. (2016) Ecological impacts of non-native Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and management measures for protected areas in Europe. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25, 2835–2865.
Manchester S.J. & Bullock J.M. (2000) The impacts of non‐native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 845–864.