Action: Import spat and/or eggs to aquaculture facilities rather than juveniles and adults to reduce the risk of introducing hitchhiking species
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- We found no studies that evaluated the effects of importing spat and/or eggs to aquaculture facilities rather than juveniles and adults to reduce the risk of introducing hitchhiking species on subtidal benthic invertebrate populations.
‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.
The expanding aquaculture industry has led to the accidental introduction of diseases, and non-native and other problematic species into the wild marine environment (Arechavaia-Lopez et al. 2013; Bax et al. 2003; Campbell & Hewitt 2008; Manchester & Bullock 2000). There, they can impact on native subtidal benthic invertebrate species through predation, competition for resources (food & space), contamination (for pathogens and diseases), or hybridization (through reproduction) (Bishop et al. 2010; Fitridge et al. 2012). In aquaculture, importing juveniles (young adults) or adults into farming facilities is a common practice, but can lead to the accidental release of non-native or problematic species that hitchhiked on/in them during transport. By importing spat (very young shellfish, usually mussels or oysters) and/or eggs instead, the risk of transporting and releasing these hitchhikers can potentially be reduced.
Arechavaia-Lopez P., Sanchez-Jerez P., Bayle-Sempere J.T., Uglem I. & Mladineo I. (2013) Reared fish. Farmed escapees and wild fish stockes – a triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 3, 153–161.
Bax N., Williamson A., Aguero M., Gonzalez E. & Geeves W. (2003) Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity. Marine Policy, 27, 313–323.
Bishop M.J., Krassoi F.R., McPherson R.G., Brown K.R., Summerhayes S.A., Wilkie E.M. & O’Connor W.A. (2010) Change in wild-oyster assemblages of Port Stephens, NSW, Australia, since commencement of non-native Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture. Marine and Freshwater Research, 61, 714–723.
Campbell M.L. & Hewitt C.L. (2008) Introduced marine species risk assessment – aquaculture. Pages 121–133 in: M.G. Bondad-Reantaso; J.R. Arthur. & R.P. Subasinghe (eds). Understanding and Applying Risk Analysis in Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 519. Rome, FAO.
Fitridge I., Dempster T., Guenther J. & de Nys R., (2012) The impact and control of biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review. Biofouling, 28, 649–669.
Manchester S.J. & Bullock J.M. (2000) The impacts of non‐native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 845–864.