Action: Co-locate aquaculture systems with other activities and other infrastructures (such as wind farms) to maximise use of marine space
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- We found no studies that evaluated the effects of limiting the number and/or extent of, or prohibit additional, renewable energy installations in an area on subtidal benthic invertebrate populations.
‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.
Aquaculture systems can negatively impact invertebrate subtidal communities through damages to the seabed, pollution, or spread of non-native species (Wu et al. 1994). Some of these threats are also commonly associated with other anthropogenic activities or infrastructures, such as oil rigs and wind farms (Gimpel et al. 2015; Inger et al. 2009). By co-locating aquaculture systems with these activities and infrastructure, the cumulative negative impacts can be spatially limited and constrained in extent, therefore potentially preventing their occurrence elsewhere, or allowing recovery in the case of relocation. Marine spatial planning can help with identifying suitable area for the occurrence of multiple complex activities (Douvere 2008; Inger et al. 2009). Evidence for interventions related to aquaculture relocation are summarised under “Threat: Pollution – Locate aquaculture systems in already impacted areas”, “Locate artificial reefs near aquaculture systems to act as biofilters”, and “Habitat restoration and creation – Locate artificial reefs near aquaculture systems to benefit from nutrient run-offs”.
Douvere F. (2008) The importance of marine spatial planning in advancing ecosystem-based sea use management. Marine Policy, 32, 762–771.
Gimpel A., Stelzenmüller V., Grote B., Buck B.H., Floeter J., Núñez-Riboni I., Pogoda B. & Temming A. (2015) A GIS modelling framework to evaluate marine spatial planning scenarios: Co-location of offshore wind farms and aquaculture in the German EEZ. Marine Policy, 55, 102–115.
Inger R., Attrill M.J., Bearhop S., Broderick A.C., Grecian W.J., Hodgson D.J., Mills C., Sheehan E., Votier S.C., Witt M.J. & Godley B.J. (2009) Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46,1145–1153.
Wu R.S.S., Lam K.S., MacKay D.W., Lau T.C. & Yam V. (1994) Impact of marine fish farming on water quality and bottom sediment: A case study in the sub-tropical environment. Marine Environmental Research, 38, 115–145.