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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Amphibians: Provide particular plants as breeding areas or egg laying sites Management of Captive Animals

Key messages

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  • One small, controlled study in the USA found that salamanders bred in an aquarium heavily planted with java moss and swamp-weed.

Supporting evidence from individual studies


A small, controlled study in 1990–1994 of Texas salamanders Eurycea neotenes in Dallas, USA found that captive breeding was successful in a heavily planted aquarium but not in aquariums without plants. Between 1990 and 1993, a pair of salamanders housed in a planted aquarium produced 19 eggs (in February 1991) but none were produced by salamander pairs housed in an aquarium containing a gravel substrate or one with partially buried rocks and rock shards over the same period. The eggs were fixed singly to live plants. Four of the eggs hatched and three larvae were reared to maturity. The planted aquarium contained java moss Vesicularia dubyana and swamp-weed Hygrophila sp.. Eggs were removed to a separate aquarium to avoid predation by the adult salamanders or snails.

Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Jonas, C.S., Timbrell, L.L., Young, F., Petrovan, S.O., Bowkett, A.E. & Smith, R.K. (2019) Management of Captive Animals. Pages 539-567 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.