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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Parrot’s feather: Biological control using plant pathogens Control of Freshwater Invasive Species

Key messages

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  • One study in South Africa found that parrot’s feather plants survived after being treated with a strain of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris.

Supporting evidence from individual studies


A study in South Africa (Morris et al. 1999) reported that parrot’s feather Myriophyllum aquaticum plants treated with a strain of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris did not die. After treatment with a suspension of the bacterium all parrot’s feather sections above the water died. However, after six weeks new shoots developed from the submerged stems leading to plant recovery. No data or statistics were reported. Plants were sprayed with a suspension of the bacterium at a concentration of 108 colony-forming units/ml. Authors do not report where or when the trials were conducted.

Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Aldridge, D., Ockendon, N., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Some aspects of control of freshwater invasive species. Pages 569-602 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.