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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Plant indigenous trees to re-establish natural tree communities in clear-cut areas Primate Conservation

Key messages

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  • One site comparison study in Kenya found that two out of three primate species had lower group densities in planted forests than in natural forests.

Supporting evidence from individual studies


A site comparison in 2006-2010 in natural and planted forest in Kakamega Forest, Kenya found that black and white colobus Colobus guereza achieved similar average group densities but smaller group size in planted as in natural forest but group densities of blue monkey Cercopithecus mitis and redtail monkey Cercopithecus ascanius were 42-45% lower in planted forest than in natural forest. Black and white colobus average group sizes in planted forest were 33% smaller than in natural forest, resulting in a population that was 35% smaller in size compared to those in natural forest. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether these differences were significant. Natural forest included old secondary forest that connected to the remaining natural old-growth forest. Planted forest included mixed indigenous trees planted in 1930-1940 in areas where natural vegetation had been clear-cut. Monkey density was estimated based on transect observations in both forest types using the ‘Whitesides’ and ‘Distance’ methods. Transects followed pre-existing footpaths or dirt roads.

Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Junker, J., Kühl, H.S., Orth, L., Smith, R.K., Petrovan, S.O. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Primate conservation. Pages 439-491 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.