Implement multimedia campaigns using theatre, film, print media, discussions
Overall effectiveness category Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)
Number of studies: 8
Background information and definitions
There are different types of media that can be used to inform people and raise their awareness about threats to primates and their conservation. Environmental education campaigns frequently use film or print media, theatre plays, group discussions, or a combination of these. For example, Mujaasi et al. (2006) found that after an education programme that involved lectures, distributed working papers, cross word puzzles, discussions, debates, and a visit to the Limbe Wildlife Centre in Cameroon where a wide variety of primate orphans, including chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla were housed, was implemented, students were able to list at least three endangered primate species in Cameroon. They also learnt which human activities had negative impact on the environment and many agreed that keeping primates as pets was wrong. An education and outreach programme implemented by CERCOPAN, a non-profit, non-governmental sanctuary, resulted in increased knowledge of students about primates after participating in the programme. The data also showed that the number of students that thought that primates made good pets, decreased significantly after participating in the programme and students were able to give examples of why primates should remain in the wild (Akparawa 2006). The results of an evaluation study of an education programme implemented across 14 schools outside the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda (Kuhar et al. 2010) demonstrated both long-term consistency in the effectiveness of delivering conservation-related knowledge and long-term retention of that information. Another study from Uganda showed that the ‘Great Ape Education Project’ designed to educate children and rural communities about the threats to great apes through ape-focused conservation films and supporting educational materials (magazines, brochures, posters), resulted in children being able to identify with and frequently cheer on the main characters in the film and encouraging them to save the great apes in their communities (Slavin 2014).
The above studies were not included in the synopsis, because their measure of effectiveness of the intervention was too indirect (Mujaasi et al. 2006), the study was not available as a full-text document thus lacking detailed information on results (Akparawa 2006), or the intervention did not specifically address primate species (Kuhar et al. 2010).
Mujaasi I., Cartwright B. & Kemigisa M. (2006) Integrating environmental education into primary school curriculum. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 196.
Akparawa J. (2006) World environment day - utilizing national event days for popular primate conservation education. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 238.
Kuhar C.W., Bettinger T.L., Lehnhardt K., Tracy O. & D. Cox (2010) Evaluating for long-term impact of an environmental education program at the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 407–413.
Slavin M. (2014) Effective conveying conservation messages through the use of films. Gorilla Journal, 48 14–15.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A before-and-after study in 1992-1994 in tropical forest in Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize found that a population of wild black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra translocated into an area where the local human community was educated about this project by multimedia campaigns alongside other interventions, increased by 61% over three years. The black howler population increased from 62 in 1994 to >100 individuals in 1997. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this increase was significant. One-month-, 6-month-, 1-year, and 2-year survival rates for the different cohorts released in the dry seasons of 1992, 1993, and 1994, was 81-100%. Birth rate was 20% (n=12) and infant survival rate was 75% (n=9). Education campaigns used TV, radio, print media, lectures and discussions. Entire howler social groups were reintroduced together, and ten of the 14 groups were held in cages for 1-3 days before release with a distance of 700-1000 m to the neighbouring troop. All individuals were individually and permanently marked, and adults were fitted with radio-collars. Hunting was largely controlled in the sanctuary since its establishment. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.Study and other actions tested
Referenced paperKoontz F., Horwich R.H., Saqui S., Saqui H., Glander K., Koontz C. & Westrom W. (1994) Reintroduction of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) into the Cocksomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize. American Zoo and Aquarium Association annual Conference Proceedings, Bethesda, MD, 104-111.
A controlled, before-and-after-trial in 1988-1994 in subtropical forest at Morro do Diabo State Park, São Paulo, Brazil found that an environmental education programme led to an improvement in student attitudes towards- and knowledge about black lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus. The average student test score increased from 74% before treatment to 92% after treatment. Control groups that were not exposed to the programme scored 73% before and 76% after treatment. From a total of 144 students aged 10-14 years, 70 were assigned to experimental- and 74 to control groups. Experimental groups were given a slide show about the park, its value, ecological concepts and how to identify plant and animal species. They were then taken on a guided visit to the state park. The attitudes and knowledge of both groups were measured before, directly after and one month after the experimental groups’ visit to the park. Changes in knowledge of ecological concepts and attitude towards nature were measured using questionnaires. No data were provided on the impact of the education campaign on the species’ conservation.Study and other actions tested
A before-and-after study in 1985-1998 in secondary forest in the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize found that after creating a sanctuary museum for wildlife education purposes along with eleven other interventions, the sanctuary’s black howler monkey Alouatta pigra population increased by 138% over 13 years. The population increased from 840 to more than 2,000 individuals, although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. Additional interventions included the protection of the sanctuary by the surrounding communities, preserving forest buffer strips along property boundaries and a forest corridor along the river, constructing pole bridges over man-made gaps, involving local communities in the management of the sanctuary, preserving important howler food trees in large clearings, an eco-tourism and research programme, presence of permanent staff, and monetary (income from employment, tourism and craft industries) and non-monetary (e.g. better education) benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife communities. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.Study and other actions tested
Referenced paperHorwich R.H. & Lyon J. (1998) Community-based development as a conservation tool: The Community Baboon Sanctuary and the Gales Point, Manatee project. in: Timber, tourists and temples. Conservation and development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. Island Press, Covelo, CA.
A study in 2008 in communities surrounding the Lésio-Louna Wildlife Reserve, Republic of Congo reported that through multimedia campaigns using theatre and film, a large audience of people was informed about lowland gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla protection laws and their status of protection. Conservation awareness programmes in nine schools reached nearly 1,000 students and trained 300 police officers via films and theatre plays addressing protection laws regarding great apes among other species. An awareness campaign at the Rural Development Institute was attended by 63 students. Also, nearly 1,300 people visited an exhibition about threats facing great apes; 770 students of primary schools were given a guided tour. Sixty people attended the conference of lawyers which addressed wildlife law enforcement issues in Central Africa. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether there was a significant change of awareness towards primate conservation before and after the intervention was implemented. Regularly broadcasted national radio announcements and films reached a large audience of people and informing them about gorilla conservation needs and current conservation actions. No data were provided on the impact of the education campaign on the species’ conservation.Study and other actions tested
A before-and-after trial in 2006-2007 in subtropical forest in Analamazaotra Special Reserve, Madagascar found that after the distribution of conservation-based activity books at two primary schools close to the reserve, poaching of diademed sifakas Propithecus diadema and black and white ruffed lemurs Varecia variegata editorum appeared to have ceased. Both species were hunted to extinction in the past and reintroduced into the reserve. Furthermore, two black and white ruffed lemurs were presumably poached before the project had been launched. A total of 350 activity books for pupils and 22 teacher guides were distributed. No further details were provided.Study and other actions tested
A before-and-after trial in 2010 in Los Limites, northern Colombia found that an education programme using print media, led to an increase in knowledge about cotton-top tamarin Saguinus oedipus identification, understanding of its limited distribution in Colombia and its main threats. The programme resulted in an 81% increase in knowledge about species identification, 77% about its distribution and 65% about threats to cotton-top tamarin survival, although no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether these differences were significant. An evaluation tool was used to test approximately 3,000 students from 15 schools before and after the programme. The programme, run in collaboration with Baranquilla Zoo, used a series of classroom workbooks that focused on the cotton-top tamarin and its habitat.Study and other actions tested
A before-and-after trial in 2004-2009 in tropical forest in the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam, India found that hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock increased by 66% over five years after implementing an education and awareness programme along with other interventions. The gibbon population increased from 64 individuals in 17 groups in 2004 to 106 individuals in 26 groups (and five solitary males) in 2009. Also, canopy cover increased by 3.5% and degraded forest decreased by 4.1%. However, no statistical tests were carried out to determine whether these differences were significant. The programme reached a total of 33,425 students from primary to college-level within Assam and other northeastern states. Two published books on hoolock gibbons provided the basis for the education programme. In addition, families within local communities that were selected through socio-economic studies were provided with more efficient stoves, bio-gas plants, handlooms and domestic ducks as farm animals in order to improve economic conditions. Local communities also received alternative income-generation through training in mushroom cultivation, honeybee keeping and duck husbandry. Training, monitoring and legal orientation programmes were also carried out for the sanctuary staff. The study does not distinguish between the effects of the different interventions mentioned above.Study and other actions tested
A before-and-after study that evaluated education programmes implemented by five primate sanctuaries housing guenons Cercopithecus erythrogaster and mangabeys Cercopithecus sp. (Cercopan in Nigeria), chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (HELP-Congo and Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center in the Republic of Congo, Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary in Uganda), and bonobos Pan paniscus (Lola ya Bonobo in the Democratic Republic of Congo) found that participants had increased knowledge of primates. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of participants were able to answer the questions correctly after participating in the programme. Furthermore, an increase in the proportion of individuals that correctly answered a question (‘performance’) (effect size measured by Cohen’s h >0.78) could be observed across all but one programme content category. The largest increase in performance was observed in community adults and the best overall programme performance in secondary school pupils. Questions to evaluate the education programme that were individually designed by each sanctuary were separated into one of five content categories addressing basic biological knowledge, threats and conservation actions.Study and other actions tested