Implement monitoring surveillance strategies (e.g. SMART) or use monitoring data to improve effectiveness of wildlife law enforcement patrols

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • One before-and-after study in Nigeria found that more gorillas and chimpanzees were observed after the implementation of law enforcement and a monitoring system.

About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A before-and-after trial in 2009-2013 in tropical forest in the Mbe Mountains, Nigeria found that more Cross River gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli and Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti groups were observed after the implementation of a system for law enforcement and monitoring. The number of observed gorilla groups and sleeping nests increased from 4 to 22 groups and from 29 to 80 nests. The number of chimpanzee groups and sleeping nests increased from 4 to 15 groups and 3 to 53 nests. The number of patrol days increased from 343 to 830 days, and patrol effort increased from 1,500 to 5,000 km/year. Encounter rates of wire snares, gunshots heard, used cartridges, and hunting camps, decreased from 1.3 to 0.27/km, 0.45 to 0.02/km, 1.56 to 0.08/km, and 0.05 to 0.002/km, respectively. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. The system used the Cyber Tracker software run on handheld computers with GPS capabilities for field data collection. Data collected with this system can be downloaded directly to computers and quickly analysed allowing timely production of feedback for patrol planning and implementation.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Junker, J., Kühl, H.S., Orth, L., Smith, R.K., Petrovan, S.O. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Primate Conservation. Pages 431-482 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2020. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

All the journals searched for all synopses

Primate Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Primate Conservation
Primate Conservation

Primate Conservation - Published 2017

Primate Synopsis

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What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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