Implement monitoring surveillance strategies (e.g. SMART) or use monitoring data to improve effectiveness of wildlife law enforcement patrols
Overall effectiveness category Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)
Number of studies: 1
Background information and definitions
This intervention entails using surveillance strategies, such as SMART (http://smartconservationtools.org/), or monitoring data, such as spatial data on hunting intensity and/or primate density, to improve the efficiency of law enforcement patrols. For example, an analysis by N’Goran et al. (2012) of monitoring and patrol data from Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire, found that patrol teams spent more time in areas of high human activity and poaching, implying that the monitoring data helped to guide law enforcement patrols to areas where hunting was concentrated, thereby increasing their efficiency. However, the study did not relate patrol effort to primate densities and therefore conclusions could not be drawn about the effectiveness of patrols.
The regular patrolling of primate habitat by anti-poaching teams and the removing of snares by snare-removal teams that may form part of anti-poaching patrols are discussed separately under ‘Conduct regular anti-poaching patrols’ and ‘Regularly de-activate/remove ground snares’. The training and the providing of equipment to anti-poaching patrols is discussed under ‘Provide training to anti-poaching ranger patrols’, and ‘Provide better equipment (e.g. guns) to anti-poaching ranger patrols’.
N’Goran P., Boesch C., Mundry R., N’Goran E.N., Herbinger I., Yapi F.A. & Kühl H.S. (2012) Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation. Conservation Biology, 3, 565–571.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A before-and-after trial in 2009-2013 in tropical forest in the Mbe Mountains, Nigeria found that more Cross River gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli and Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti groups were observed after the implementation of a system for law enforcement and monitoring. The number of observed gorilla groups and sleeping nests increased from 4 to 22 groups and from 29 to 80 nests. The number of chimpanzee groups and sleeping nests increased from 4 to 15 groups and 3 to 53 nests. The number of patrol days increased from 343 to 830 days, and patrol effort increased from 1,500 to 5,000 km/year. Encounter rates of wire snares, gunshots heard, used cartridges, and hunting camps, decreased from 1.3 to 0.27/km, 0.45 to 0.02/km, 1.56 to 0.08/km, and 0.05 to 0.002/km, respectively. No statistical tests were carried out to determine whether this difference was significant. The system used the Cyber Tracker software run on handheld computers with GPS capabilities for field data collection. Data collected with this system can be downloaded directly to computers and quickly analysed allowing timely production of feedback for patrol planning and implementation.Study and other actions tested