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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Primates: Change the number of feeds per day Management of Captive Animals

Key messages

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  • Two before-and-after studies in Japan and the USA found that when the number of feeds per day were increased the amount of time spent feeding increased in chimpanzees, but hair eating also increased in baboons.


Supporting evidence from individual studies


A before-and-after study in 1999 in Japan (Morimura & Ueno 1999) found that when food was given twice a day instead of once a day to a group of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes the amount of time spent feeding increased. On average, feeding time contributed to 7% of the behaviours expressed when one feed was offered per day and 24% when two feeds were offered per day. A group of five chimpanzees was observed for 15 days over five one hour time periods when all food was provided in the afternoon at 15:00 h and when one feed was given between 10:00 h and 11:00 h and a second feed at 15:00 h.    (CJ)


A before-and-after study in 2012 in the USA (Nevill & Lutz 2015) found that increasing feeds from one to two per day increased hair-eating in baboons Papio hamadryas sp. When one feed was provided, hair eating was seen during 1% of the observations, increasing to 3% with two feeds. Eleven baboons, housed as a social group, were offered their standard feed of 5 kg of monkey diet in the afternoon, which was then split into two, 2 kg feeds, given morning and afternoon. Each monkey was observed over six months and two hours of data were collected on each animal.    (CJ)


Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Jonas, C.S., Timbrell, L.L., Young, F., Petrovan, S.O., Bowkett, A.E. & Smith, R.K. (2019) Management of Captive Animals. Pages 539-567 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.