Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Exclusion of deer through the use of fenced exclosures increases woody plant density and diversity and populations of ground and mid-canopy bird species, northern Virginia, USA

Published source details

McShea W.J. & Rappole J.H. (2000) Managing the abundance and diversity of breeding bird populations through manipulation of deer populations. Conservation Biology, 14, 1161-1170


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Reduce adverse habitat alterations by excluding problematic terrestrial species Bird Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in northern Virginia, USA (McShea & Rappole 2000) found significantly higher numbers of 16 species of ground and intermediate canopy-dwelling songbirds in four 4 ha plots of deciduous forest with deer excluded between 1990 and 1998, compared to five control plots. However, there was no corresponding increase in bird diversity as species were gained and lost as understory vegetation developed. There was also no significant difference in the number of resident birds (eight songbird species and one woodpecker) caught.