Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: American Bullfrogs as Invasive Species: A Review of the Introduction, Subsequent Problems, Management Options, and Future Directions

Published source details

Snow N.P. & Witmer G (2010) American Bullfrogs as Invasive Species: A Review of the Introduction, Subsequent Problems, Management Options, and Future Directions. 24th Vertebrate Pest Conference, University of California, Davis, USA,


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American bullfrog control: Application of a biocide Control of Freshwater Invasive Species

A replicated, controlled laboratory study from 2008 to 2009 at the University of California, USA (Snow & Witmer 2010) reported that a number of chemicals killed American bullfrog.  Caffeine (10% solution), chloroxylenol (5% solution), and a combined treatment of Permethrin (4.6% solution) and Rotenone (1% solution) each achieved 100% mortality.  Dosed on their own, Permethrin (4.6% solution) and Rotenone (1% solution) each achieved 40% mortality.  In the trial, approximately 4 ml of treatment solution was sprayed on the entire dorsal surface of randomly-selected groups of bullfrogs using a handheld plastic spray bottle. There were five bullfrogs in each group.  Water was used as the solvent for all materials.  To improve solubility, a small amount of sodium benzoate was added to the caffeine solution, and a small amount of alcohol was added to the chloroxylenol solution.