Individual study: Bayview Avenue extension, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada habitat creation and wildlife crossings in a contentious environmental setting: a case study
Gartshore R.G., Purchase M., Rook R.I. & Scott L. (2006) Bayview Avenue extension, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada habitat creation and wildlife crossings in a contentious environmental setting: a case study. Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 55-76.
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Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings
A replicated study in 2003–2005 of five amphibian tunnels with guide fencing along a road through Oak Ridges Moraine in Ontario, Canada (Gartshore et al. 2006) found that four of the tunnels were used by amphibians but not by the targeted Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum. Tunnels were used by a small number of amphibians in 2003, when weather conditions minimized activity. In 2004, 22 amphibians were recorded in or near tunnels. American toad Bufo americanus, wood frog Rana sylvatica, spring peeper Pseudacris crucifer and leopard frog Rana pipiens, but not spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum or Jefferson salamander were recorded. Observations were evenly spread across four tunnels, the fifth was waterlogged. Five concrete or steel tunnels, 1.2 m diameter and 25–31 m long, were installed under a new road section in 2001. Each was lined with a sandy substrate and had 30–50 m of guide fencing on each side. Six to eight monitoring visits were undertaken each spring in 2003–2004. Plastic fences directed amphibians to pitfall traps at the tunnel entrances and exits. Fences were also walked by observers at night.