Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Effectiveness of road tunnels for the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander

Published source details

Allaback M.L. & Laabs D.M. (2002) Effectiveness of road tunnels for the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society, 38/39, 5-8


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings Amphibian Conservation

A small, replicated study in 2000–2001 of two amphibian tunnels constructed under a road in a residential development in Santa Cruz County, California, USA (Allaback & Laabs 2002-2003) found that a small proportion of migrating Santa Cruz long-toed salamanders Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum used tunnels. A total of 23 adult salamanders passed through the tunnels. Of the 44 adults marked along the drift-fence, only four (9%) were captured on the opposite side of one tunnel and none for the other. The two cement polymer amphibian tunnels were installed in 1999. They were 0.3 x 0.5 m or 0.2 x 0.2 m and 11–12 m long. Entrances were screened with mesh to reduce predator access. Drift-fences (0.4–0.8 m high) were permanently installed at tunnel entrances and along the road to connect tunnels (300 m). Salamanders were monitored by visual survey along the drift-fence on five rainy nights in December–January. Each animal was marked. Pitfall traps captured individuals passing through tunnels.