Use of nest boxes by 31 species of solitary bee and wasp in agricultural areas and forest in Manabi, Ecuador
Tylianakis J.M., Klein A.M. & Tscharntke T. (2005) Spatiotemporal variation in the diversity of hymenoptera across a tropical habitat gradient. Ecology, 86, 3296-3302.
Many solitary bee and wasp species rely on pre-existing cavities in dead wood or plant stems for nest sites. The availability of these nest sites can be augmented with nest boxes. This study demonstrates the use of nest boxes by a range of species in agricultural habitats and forest fragments in the
Nest boxes consisted of a PVC tube (length 22 cm, diameter 15 cm) filled with 20 cm long sections of reed Arundo donax stem of varying diameters (2–20 mm). The boxes were hung from trees or wooden posts 1.5 m above ground, with a sticky barrier (Tanglefoot) at the attachment point to exclude ants.
In total, 15,047 individuals of 31 species of bee (Apidae and Megachilidae) and wasp (Eumenidae, Mutilidae, Pompilidae and Sphecidae) used the nest boxes.